eISSN: 2300-6722
ISSN: 1899-1874
Medical Studies/Studia Medyczne
Current issue Archive About the journal Supplements Abstracting and indexing Subscription Contact Instructions for authors
vol. 33
Original paper

Foot shape and its relationship with somatic characteristics in pre-school children

Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis, Justyna Ciosek

Medical Studies/Studia Medyczne 2017; 33 (3): 214 –221
Online publish date: 2017/09/30
View full text
Get citation
JabRef, Mendeley
Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero
Introduction: The preschool period, characterised by high intensity of ontogenetic developmental changes, is considered to be the most important regarding formation of the foot. Getting to know the issue of the foot anatomy in children in this period is the main problem, which is the starting point towards proper prevention, examination, or correction of its deformities.

Aim of the research: To analyse the shape of children’s feet and its relationship with chosen somatic characteristics in pre-school children.

Material and methods: The study group comprised 80 five-year-old children recruited from randomly selected pre-schools in the Podkarpackie region. A CQ-ST podoscope was used as the research tool. In order to evaluate intersex differences at the average level of the tested variables, we used the Student’s t test or alternatively the Mann-Whitney U test. The relations between tested variables was assessed using Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s rank correlation.

Results: A low percentage of foot deformities in the children was found. In girls, statistically significant relationships were seen between Clarke’s angle in the right foot and body mass index as well as between Wejsflog index in the right foot and body weight and height. In the case of boys, Clarke’s angle and Wejsflog index in the left foot correlated with body mass index.

Conclusions: We can therefore assume that most of the surveyed girls and boys had correctly longitudinally and transversely arched feet and toes positioned correctly. Excessive weight was a factor distorting the foot shape in children; it caused a deterioration of longitudinal and transverse arch of the right foot in girls, and left foot flattening occurred in boys.

development of the foot, the medial longitudinal arch, transverse arch, setting of the hallux, setting of the V toe

Lizis P. Formation of longitudinal arch of the foot and problems of flat foot correction in children and adolescents at developmental age. AWF, Krakow, 2000.
Prętkiewicz-Abacjew E, Opanowska M. Correctness and defects in knee alignment, tarsus and longitudinal foot arch in 5-7 year-old boys and girls. Probl Hig Epidemiol 2013; 94: 929-6.
Lin CJ, Lai KA, Kuan TS, Chou YL. Correlating factors and clinical significance of flexible flatfoot in preschool children. J Pediatr Orthop 2001; 21: 378-82.
Evans AM, Rome KA. Cochrane review of the evidence for non-surgical interventions for flexible pediatric flat feet. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2011; 47: 69-89.
Demczuk-Włodarczyk E. Construction of the foot during the progressive development of a man. Studia i Monografie nr 66. AWF, Wroclaw, 2003.
Mickle KJ, Steele JR, Munro BJ. Is the foot structure of preschool children moderated by gender? J Pediatr Orthop 2008; 28: 593-6.
Jankowicz-Szymańska A, Pociecha M. Variations of the longitudinal arches of the foot among preschool children. Physiotherapy 2012; 20: 3-11.
Chen KC, Yeh CJ, Tung LC, Yang JF, Yang SF, Wang CH. Relevant factors influencing flatfoot in preschool-aged children. Eur J Pediatr 2011; 170: 931-6.
Vergara-Amador E, Serrano Sánchez RF, Correa Posada JR, Molano AC, Guevara OA. Prevalence of flatfoot in school between 3 and 10 years. Study of two different populations geographically and socially. Colomb Med 2012; 43: 141-6.
Pfeiffer M, Kotz R, Ledl T, Hauser G, Sluga M. Prevalence of flat foot in preschool-aged children. Pediatrics 2006; 118: 634-9.
Echarri JJ, Forriol F. The development in footprint morphology in 1851 Congolese children from urban and rural areas, and the relationship between this and wearing shoes. J Pediatr Orthop 2003; 12: 141-6.
Arizmendi LA, Pastrana HE, Rodríguez LB. Prevalencia de pie plano en Morelia. Rev Mex Pediatr 2004; 71: 66-9.
Talab YA. Hallux valgus in children. A 5-14-year followup study of 300 feet treated with modified Mitchell osteotomy. Acta Orthop Scandinavia 2002; 73: 195-8.
Knapik H, Mazur JA. The angles of valgity of the first toe and varus deformity of the fifth toe as criterion of toe deformities and directions for construction footwear for children and youth aged 3-15. In: Ergonomics in health care. Kosińska M, Niebrój J (eds). Eurazja ŚLAM, Katowice 2003; 4: 109-12.
Knapik H, Farouni A, Kuszewski M, Knapik A, Mucha D. Częstość występowania koślawości palucha i szpotawości palca małego u dzieci w wieku 8-12 lat z Rudy Śląskiej. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska 2006; 16: 311-5.
Klein C, Groll-Knapp E, Kundi M, Kinz W. Increased hallux angle in children and its association with insufficient length of footwear: a community based cross-sectional study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2009; 10: 159.
Mickle KJ, Steele JR, Munro BJ. The feet of overweight and obese young children: are they flat or fat? Obesity 2006; 14: 1949-53.
Riddiford-Harland DL, Steele JR, Baur LA. Are the feet of obese children fat or flat? Revisiting the debate. Int J Obes 2011; 35: 115-20.
Evans AM, Karimi L. The relationship between paediatric foot posture and body mass index – do heavier children really have flatter feet? J Foot Ankle Res 2015; 8: 46.
Mikołajczyk E, Jankowicz-Szymańska A. Effect of fatness on feet arching and lower limbs development in 7-year olds. Physiotherapy 2010; 8: 10-20.
Matsuda S, Demura S, Kasuga K, Sugira H. Reliability and sex differences in the foot pressure load balance test and its relationship to physical characteristics in preschool children. Adv Phys Educ 2012; 2: 44-8.
Quick links
© 2018 Termedia Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Developed by Bentus.
PayU - płatności internetowe