eISSN: 1897-4252
ISSN: 1731-5530
Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska/Polish Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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vol. 16
Letter to the Editor

Injury of the left brachiocephalic vein with hematoma and right sided pneumothorax after the insertion of a dialysis catheter

Marek Rębowski
Józef Kozak
Mariusz P. Łochowski

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Regional Multidisciplinary Center of Oncology and Traumatology, Lodz, Poland
Kardiochir Torakochir Pol 2019; 16 (3): 138-140
Online publish date: 2019/10/28
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Central venous catheterization is one of the basic procedures performed in intensive care units. One of the indications for the introduction of the cannula is the need for renal replacement therapy. The procedure is associated with the risk of vessel perforation leading to life-threatening hemorrhage. In this type of complication the method of choice is surgical treatment of the damaged vessel.
We report the case of a 84-year-old woman, who was treated with hemodialysis due to advanced chronic kidney disease. On account of thrombosis in the femoral vein, the patient was qualified for introduction of a new catheter by puncturing the carotid junction of the internal carotid vein and subclavian vein using the Happaniemi and Slatis technique. In the intensive care unit under local anesthesia, a 15 cm long 12 F dialysis catheter was introduced. After this procedure hypotonia was observed. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest revealed the presence of the dialysis catheter tip in the right pleural cavity and right-sided pneumothorax with hematoma (Figures 1 and 2 A). The patient was transported to the Thoracic Surgery Department. A drain to the right pleural cavity was introduced on site. Due to the patient’s stable condition and drainage from the pleural cavity, approx. 25 ml/h, the patient was scheduled for surgery. The following day a partial longitudinal sternotomy was performed. Intraoperatively, injury of the left brachiocephalic vein by a dialysis catheter penetrating the right pleural cavity was detected (Figure 2 B). After withdrawal of the catheter, bleeding from the pierced vessel occurred, because the catheter itself partially blocked the bleeding by blocking the lesion site. The vessel was equipped with a continuous Premilene 3-0 suture. After treating injured vessels, under the control of sight the catheter was inserted into the superior vena cava. In order to ensure better hemostasis, a TachoSil hemostatic sponge (Figure 2 C) was used on the damaged venous vessel. No bleeding was observed. The Redon drain was left in the anterior mediastinum. The postoperative course was uneventful. The Redon drain was removed on the second postoperative day, and the drain from the pleural cavity on the 3rd day. The patient was referred for dialysis treatment with an inserted catheter.
Bleeding after inserting the central venous catheter is a rare complication but potentially lethal. Its frequency according to various sources is estimated at...

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