eISSN: 2299-551X
ISSN: 0011-4553
Journal of Stomatology
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vol. 77
Original paper

New findings about releasing of chloride ions and quaternary ammonium compounds from conventional and experimental glass ionomers

Aleksandar Dimkov
Elizabeta Gjorgievska
Jasna Simonoska

  1. Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Saints Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, North Macedonia
  2. Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Dental Clinic Center St. Panteleimon, Skopje, North Macedonia
J Stoma 2024; 77, 2: 77-86
Online publish date: 2024/05/29
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Glass ionomer cements (GICs), the most frequently used restorative materials in pediatric dentistry, may be used as medium for slow release of other active anti-microbial components apart from fluoride.

The objectives of this study were to determine the level of released chloride ions and anti-microbial compounds by incorporating 2% anti-microbial agents into conventional and experimental GICs.

Material and methods:
The study was carried out using a conventional glass ionomer cements ChemFlex and Fuji IX as well as experimental glass ionomer cement MP4 and anti-microbial compounds, such as cetylpyri­dinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride. A total of 36 specimens (4 mm × 6 mm) were prepared, including 6 specimens of each GIC integrated with 2% of anti-microbial agents, and other six samples of the same cement without any anti-microbial agents used as a control group. Amounts of released Cl– ions were determined with the use of an ion-selective electrode, and amounts of anti-microbial agents were determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Measurements were performed at 9 successive time intervals starting from fifteenth minute and finishing after seven days.

The results obtained show a continual release of both chloride ions and anti-microbial compounds from analyzed GICs that increased over time.

In comparison with conventional GICs, MP4 GIC produces a significantly higher release both of chloride ions and anti-microbial compounds.


benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, anti-microbials, conventional GICs, MP4

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