eISSN: 2299-0038
ISSN: 1643-8876
Menopause Review/Przegląd Menopauzalny
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The prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence among gynaecological patients

Aneta Adamiak, Jacek Tomaszewski, Paweł Mazur, Paweł Skorupski, Paweł Walaszek, Tomasz Rechberger, Zenon Płachta

(Prz Menopauz 2002; 1: 28–32)
Objectives. To assess the prevalence of urinary leakage among gynaecological patients and to identify the most common risk factors for this disorder.
Material and methods. Five hundred consecutive female patients aged from 17 to 87 years seen in outpatient gynaecological department between May 2001 and January 2002 were included into the study. After gynaecological examination patients were asked to fill Gaudenz questionnaire. The prevalence of urinary symptoms was analysed in terms of risk factors such as age, parity, body mass index, and menopausal and occupational status.
Results. The prevalence of urinary incontinence among study group was 16,8%. Urinary leakage was most common complaint in patients in the age of 51–60 years (34,4%) and 61–70 years (35,4%) and these values were statistically different from patients aged 31–40 years (p<0,001; p<0,01; Fisher exact test). Urinary problems occurred almost three times more often in postmenopausal patients (34,6%) when compared to premenopausal patients (10,7%; p<0,001). Overweight women were more prone to urinary incontinence. Patients with body mass index (BMI) ranged from 25 to 29,9 kg/m2 and group with BMI ranged from 30 to 39,9 kg/m2 significantly more often experienced urinary incontinence (p<0,01). However, no difference in the incidence of urinary incontinence was found between both groups of overweight women. Occupational status exerts profound effect on urinary disorders. Urinary incontinence is almost two times more frequent among blue-collar workers when compared to white-collar workers (21,3% and 11,7% respectively; p<0,01). Undoubtedly, parity status has influence on the occurrence of urinary incontinence. This condition was rare in nulligravidas (3 cases in our material, 3,1%). This value can be compared to incidence of urinary incontinence in primigravida group (15%, p<0,01), women after two or three vaginal deliveries (20,8%, p<0,001) and women who delivered more then three times (33,3%, p<0,001).
Conclusions. Urinary incontinence is a common disorder especially among postmenopausal, overweight, multiparous women. Occupational status exerted a significant influence on the incidence of the disease – blue-collar workers are almost two times more prone to the development of urinary incontinence.

urinary incontinence, epidemiology

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