Biology of Sport
eISSN: 2083-1862
ISSN: 0860-021X
Biology of Sport
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3/2022
vol. 39
 
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abstract:
Review paper

The relationship between internal and external loads as a tool to monitor physical fitness status of team sport athletes: a systematic review

Adriano Lima-Alves
1, 2
,
João Gustavo Claudino
3, 4
,
Daniel Boullosa
5, 6, 7
,
Crislaine Rangel Couto
1, 8
,
Francisco Teixeira-Coelho
9
,
Eduardo M. Pimenta
1

1.
School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Sports Department, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
2.
 Associação Chapecoense de Futebol, Santa Catarina, Brazil
3.
School of Physical Education and Sport, Universidade de São Paulo, Laboratory of Biomechanics, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
4.
LOAD CONTROL, Research and Development Department, Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil
5.
 Instituto Integrado de Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Brazil
6.
Sport and Exercise Science, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
7.
 iLOAD Solutions, Brasília, Brazil
8.
Centro Universitário Metodista Izabela Hendrix Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
9.
Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Departamento de Ciências do Esporte, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Uberaba, MG, Brasil
Biol Sport. 2022;39(3):629–638.
Online publish date: 2021/08/27
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The efficiency index (Effindex) combines internal and external loads, and it has been considered a promising tool to evaluate physical fitness status. However, its real applicability and limitations have not been elucidated yet. To examine and discuss the findings from studies that used Effindex as a tool for the evaluation of physical fitness status in team sports. A systematic search was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The databases conferred were PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE and CINAHL. The articles selected were published up to March 2021. Fourteen articles were included after meeting the inclusion criteria. A wide variety of combinations of external and internal loading parameters to calculate Effindex were found. The pooled sample included 349  male participants (23 ± 3years). Fifty-nine percent of the sample were soccer players, 20% rugby players, 10% Australian football players, 7% hurling players, and 4% basketball players. Most Effindex calculations used total distance (TD) divided by heart rate derived parameters. However, recent studies have suggested the use of accelerations as the external load parameter. Effindex is a simple and powerful tool for the evaluation of physical fitness status in team sports athletes. The disparity of external and internal loading parameters used to calculate Effindex may affect its sensitivity to detect changes in fitness status in different team sport settings. More studies with indoor team sports and female athletes are warranted.
keywords:

Efficiency performance index, Load control, Fatigue, Physical test, Effindex

 
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