eISSN: 2299-0038
ISSN: 1643-8876
Menopause Review/Przegląd Menopauzalny
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vol. 16
Review paper

Ultrasonography of uterine leiomyomas

Andrzej Woźniak
Sławomir Woźniak

Menopause Rev 2017; 16(4): 113-117
Online publish date: 2017/12/30
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Uterine leiomyomas or uterine fibroids are the most common gynaecological tumours and occur in about 20-50% of women around the world. Ultrasonography (USG) is the first-line imaging examination in suspected fibroids and shows high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing this condition. Ultrasound scans can be performed transvaginally (transvaginal scan – TVS) or transabdominally (transabdominal scan – TAS); both scans have advantages and limitations, but, in general, transvaginal sonography is superior to transabdominal sonography in most cases of pelvic pathology. Whether a leiomyoma is symptomatic or not depends primarily on its size and location. During ultrasound examination, leiomyomas usually appear as well-defined, solid, concentric, hypoechoic masses that cause a variable amount of acoustic shadowing. During the examination of leiomyomas differential diagnosis is important. Some of the most common misdiagnosed pathologies are adenomyosis, solid tumours of adnexa, and endometrial polyps. Misdiagnosis of a leiomyosarcoma has the most negative consequences, presenting symptoms are very similar to benign leiomyoma, and there is no pelvic imaging technique that can reliably differentiate between those pathologies. Magnetic resonance and computer tomography might be helpful in the diagnostics of uterine leiomyoma; however, ultrasound examination is the basic imaging test confirming the existence of leiomyomas, allowing the differentiation of myomas with adenomyosis, endometrial polyps, ovarian tumours, and pregnant uterus.

ultrasound, leiomyomas, fibroids

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