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ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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vol. 48
Clinical immunology

Abnormal expression of CXCL13, MIF and IL-35 in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome and its relationship with disease severity

Ronghua Wang
Yushu Yang
Xuying Liu
Lingyan Lei
Xuan Qi

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Xingtai People’s Hospital, Xingtai, China
Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China
Cent Eur J Immunol 2023; 48 (2): 144-149
Online publish date: 2023/05/25
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The aim of the study was to detect the saliva chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and interleukin 35 (IL-35) levels in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) and pSS-associated interstitial lung disease (pSS-ILD), and to explore the relationship between CXCL13, MIF, IL-35 levels, and disease severity.

Material and methods:
ESSDAI score was used to evaluate the disease activity of pSS patients, and the levels of CXCL13, MIF and IL-35 in saliva of subjects were detected and analyzed, and the relationship between CXCL13, MIF, IL-35 and the occurrence of pSS was evaluated. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between CXCL13, MIF, IL-35 and ESSDAI score. ROC curve analysis was conducted to assess the diagnostic value of CXCL13, MIF, IL-35 and their combined application in pSS.

The levels of CXCL13, MIF, and IL-35 in saliva were positively correlated with ESSDAI score. Saliva CXCL13 and IL-35 are risk factors for the development of pSS into pSS-ILD. The ROC curve shows that the combination of saliva CXCL13, MIF and IL-35 has the highest diagnostic efficiency for pSS-ILD.

CXCL13, MIF and IL-35 are related to the activity of pSS, and the combined diagnosis of these three indexes is expected to be an important method to predict the occurrence and development of pSS.


primary Sjögren’s syndrome, CXCL13, MIF, IL-35, ESSDAI

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