eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
4/2020
vol. 45
 
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abstract:
Review paper

Chronic inflammation and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis

Ewelina Witkowska-Sędek
1
,
Beata Pyrżak
1

1.
Department of Paediatrics and Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Cent Eur J Immunol 2020; 45 (4): 469-475
Online publish date: 2021/01/30
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Interactions between growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and the immune system are complex, bidirectional, but not fully explained. Current reviews based on numerous studies have indicated that chronic inflammation could suppress the GH/IGF-1 axis via several mechanisms such as relative GH and/or IGF-1 insufficiency, peripheral resistance to GH and/or IGF-1 resulting from down-regulation of GH and IGF-1 receptors, disruption in the GH/IGF-1 signalling pathways, dysregulation of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), reduced IGF bioavailability, and modified gene regulation due to changes in the microRNA system. It is well-known that relationships between the immune system and the GH/IGF-1 axis are mutual and GH as well as IGF-1 could modulate inflammatory response and the activity of systemic inflammation. Available data indicate that the GH/IGF-1 axis exerts both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor- (TNF-), and interleukin-1(IL-) are some of the most significant factors, besides malnutrition, chronic stress, and prolonged use of glucocorticoids, which impair the activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis, and consequently lead to growth retardation in children suffering from childhood-onset chronic inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic inflammation on the GH/IGF-1 axis and growth processes during childhood and adolescence, based on a number of experimental and human studies.
keywords:

pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth impairment, children and adolescents

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