eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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vol. 39

Clinical immunology
Enhancement of soluble CD28 levels in the serum of Graves’ disease

Zhongwen Sun
Lixian Yi
Hong Tao
Jingfang Huang
Zhenghong Jin
Yang Xiao
Caiyun Feng
Jing Sun

(Centr Eur J Immunol 2014; 39 (2): 216–222)
Online publish date: 2014/06/27
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Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland mediated by T cells. CD28, a member of costimulatory molecules, plays a pivotal role in regulating T-cell responses. Plasma-soluble CD28 is one form of CD28 in peripheral blood. To investigate the concentrations of soluble CD28 in patients with Graves’ disease, we used a sensitive dual monoclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the soluble form of CD28. Our results suggested that mean concentrations of soluble CD28 in plasma of patients with Graves’ disease were 1.79 ±1.52 ng/ml, and levels of soluble CD28 in healthy subjects were only 0.83 ±1.35 ng/ml. Concentrations of soluble CD28 detected in patients with Graves’ disease were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (p < 0.01). Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of soluble CD28 in plasma and levels of FT3 (r = 0.663), FT4 (r = 0.624) and TRAb (r = 0.728) in serum, but a negative correlation was found between sCD28 levels and TSH (r = –0.726). Through in vitro experiments we observed that engagement of soluble CD28 protein and B7-1/B7-2 molecules expressed on dendritic cells could exert the secretion of cytokine IL-6, which may promote the production of autoantibody and aggravate Graves’ disease. Therefore, aberrant elevation of plasma-soluble CD28 in patients with Graves’ disease may reflect the dysregulation of immune system, and may serve as a useful biomarker in Graves’ disease diagnosis.

soluble CD28, membrane CD28, correlation analyses, IL-6, Graves’ disease

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