eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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vol. 39

Clinical immunology
Periodontal disease in relation to selected parameters of the cardiovascular system in a group of patients with stable angina pectoris

Monika Włosowicz
Beata Wożakowska-Kapłon
Renata Górska

(Centr Eur J Immunol 2014; 39 (2): 181–186)
Online publish date: 2014/06/27
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Introduction: Periodontal diseases (PD), which are the cause of chronic inflammatory processes, can develop increased susceptibility to vascular diseases through atherosclerosis. Due to the raised inflammatory and thrombotic risk, PD can have a significant influence on the course and results of stable angina pectoris (SAP).

Objectives. The aim of the study is to evaluate the influence of chosen PD parameters on selected cardiovascular system parameters, and the correlation between chosen parameters of periodontitis and cardiovascular system parameters.

Material and methods: the case group included 67 patients with SAP, ≤ 60 years of age. The occurrence of well-known cardiovascular disease risk factors was evaluated on the basis of the clinical interview, clinical examination and laboratory tests. The occurrence of known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) was established on the basis of the interview, clinical research and laboratory tests. Periodontal examination included API (approximal plaque index), CAL (clinical attachment level), PD (pocket depth), and BI (bleeding index). IMT (intima-media thickness) and the size of atherosclerotic plaque in carotid arteries were assessed by ultrasound examination. Segmental contractility abnormalities were assessed on the basis of echocardiography examination, presence of the single-vessel vascular and multi-vessel vascular disease on the basis of angiographic examination.

Results: In the study group of patients, numerous risk factors and a higher level of API, CAL, PD and BI were observed. A higher prevalence of multi-vessel disease (75%) than single-vessel disease (25%) was noted on the basis of angiographic examination. Patients with contractility abnormalities demonstrated also poor oral cavity health. In addition, a higher concentration of CRP (3.2 mg/dl), fibrinogen (3.3 g/l)) and the progression of atherosclerosis, e.g. increased IMT (2.1 mm) and formation of atherosclerotic plaques were noted. Results of multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that API and PD had a significant influence on IMT. In patients with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, the risk of increased IMT (OR = 4.67) was fourfold higher.

Summary: Periodontitis may influence the occurrence and course of the atherosclerotic process in persons with stable angina.

periodontal diseases, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases

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