eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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1/2015
vol. 40
 
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abstract:

Clinical immunology
Thrombocytopenia in common variable immunodeficiency patients – clinical course, management, and effect of immunoglobulins

Anna Pituch-Noworolska
,
Maciej Siedlar
,
Danuta Kowalczyk
,
Anna Szaflarska
,
Anita Błaut-Szlósarczyk
,
Katarzyna Zwonarz

(Centr Eur J Immunol 2015; 40 (1): 83-90)
Online publish date: 2015/04/22
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Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency of humoral immunity with heterogeneous clinical features. Diagnosis of CVID is based on hypogammaglobulinaemia, low production of specific antibodies, and disorders of cellular immunity. The standard therapy includes replacement of specific antibodies with human immunoglobulin, prophylaxis, and symptomatic therapy of infections. High prevalence of autoimmunity is characteristic for CVID, most commonly: thrombocytopaenia and neutropaenia, celiac disease, and systemic autoimmune diseases.

The study included seven children diagnosed with CVID and treated with immunoglobulin substitution from 2 to 12 years. Thrombocytopenia was diagnosed prior to CVID in four children, developed during immunoglobulin substitution in three children. In one boy with CVID and thrombocytopaenia, haemolytic anaemia occurred, so a diagnosis of Evans syndrome was established. Therapy of thrombocytopaenia previous to CVID included steroids and/or immunoglobulins in high dose, and azathioprine. In children with CVID on regular immunoglobulin substitution, episodes of acute thrombocytopaenia were associated with infections and were treated with high doses of immunoglobulins and steroids. In two patients only chronic thrombocytopaenia was noted. Splenectomy was necessary in one patient because of severe course of thrombocytopaenia.

The results of the study indicated a supportive role of regular immunoglobulin substitution in patients with CVID and chronic thrombocytopaenia. However, regular substitution of immunoglobulins in CVID patients did not prevent the occurrence of autoimmune thrombocytopaenia episodes or exacerbations of chronic form. In episodes of acute thrombocytopaenia or exacerbations of chronic thrombocytopaenia, infusions of immunoglobulins in high dose are effective, despite previous regular substitution in the replacing dose.

keywords:

children, CVID, thrombocytopaenia, immunoglobulins substitution, steroids

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