eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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4/2016
vol. 41
 
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abstract:
Review paper

Diagnostic value of selected markers and apoptotic pathways for pancreatic cancer

Robert Słotwiński
,
Sylwia Małgorzata Słotwińska

(Cent Eur J Immunol 2016; 41 (4): 392-403)
Online publish date: 2017/01/24
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Pancreatic cancer occupies the fourth place as a cause of death from cancer, and the mortality rate is similar to the number of newly detected cases. Due to the late diagnosis, only 5-6% of patients with pancreatic cancer survive for five years. Given that early diagnosis is critical for improving patients’ survival rates, there is an urgent need for the discovery and validation of new biomarkers with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to help diagnose pancreatic cancer early. Detection of serum tumor markers (CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242) is conducive to the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The combination of miR-16, miR-196a and CA19-9 plasma level was more effective, especially in early tumor screening. Furthermore, recent studies reported that mainly miR-21, miR-155 and miR-196 were dysregulated in IPMN (intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms) and PanIN (pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia) lesions, suggesting their usefulness as early biomarkers of these diseases. The reduced rate of apoptosis plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis, and it is one of the most important characteristics acquired by pancreatic cancer cells, which protects them from attack by the immune system and reduces the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment. This review summarizes the data concerning the clinical utility of selected biomarkers in pancreatic cancer patients. The review mainly focuses on the genetic aspects of signaling pathway disorders associated with apoptosis in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.
keywords:

pancreatic cancer, tumor markers, cell apoptosis, signaling pathways

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