eISSN: 1689-3530
ISSN: 0867-4361
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction/Alkoholizm i Narkomania
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vol. 31
Original paper

Early maladaptive schemas and typical and atypical symptoms of depression among Adult Children of Alcoholics

Jan Chodkiewicz, Zuzanna Kasprzak

Alcohol Drug Addict 2018; 31(2): 107-124
Online publish date: 2018/09/03
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The aim of the study was to distinguish the maladaptive schemas defined by Jeffrey Young et al. dominate within a group of Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACoA) and to examine the relationship between the schemas and depressive symptoms in the study group.

Material and methods
Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-SF3), Rutz Gotland Male Depression Scale (GMDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used in this study. The study consisted of 56 female and 10 male participants in ACoA treatment.

The highest results in the study group were obtained in the following schemas: Recognition-seeking, Negativity, Unrelenting standards, Insufficient self-control, Self-sacrifice, Abandonment and Mistrust. A strong positive relationship was detected between the majority of early maladaptive schemas and typical and atypical symptoms of depression. The obtained results indicate possible clinical severity of typical and atypical symptoms of depression in ACoA.

Schemas that dominated in the studied persons correspond in part to the characteristics of the ACoA according to recognised concepts. The obtained relationships of some of the schemas with the level of depression measured with GMDS and BDI were similar to the results obtained in the studies of healthy people and those diagnosed with depression. However, some schemas have relationships only with a tool investigating atypical symptoms of depression (GMDS), which might be specific to the ACoA.

The role of non-adaptive schemas and typical and atypical symptoms of depression is underlined. This indicates the appropriateness of using Schema Therapy (ST) in the ACoA with the accompanying symptoms of depression. There was also discussion on the development of further research in this area.


Early maladaptive schemas, Atypical depression, ACoA, Typical depression

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