Biology of Sport
eISSN: 2083-1862
ISSN: 0860-021X
Biology of Sport
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2/2020
vol. 37
 
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abstract:

Effects on performance of active and passive hypoxia as a re-warm-up routine before a 100-metre swimming time trial: a randomized crossover study

Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo
1
,
Nuno Batalha
2, 3
,
Guillermo Olcina
4
,
Jose Parraca
2, 3
,
João Paulo Sousa
2, 3
,
Pablo Tomas-Carus
2, 3

1.
Faculty of Sports, UCAM, Catholic University San Antonio, Murcia, Spain
2.
Departamento de Desporto e Saúde, Escola de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade de Évora, Évora, Portugal
3.
Comprehensive Health Research Centre (CHRC), University of Évora, Évora, Portugal
4.
Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain
Biol Sport. 2020;37(2):113-119
Online publish date: 2020/02/11
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Passive and active hypoxia could be used as a tool during a transitional phase to maintain the effects of warm-up and optimize athletic performance. Our purpose was to evaluate and compare the effects of four different re-warm-up strategies, i.e. rest in normoxia (RN) at FiO2 = 20.9%, rest in hypoxia (RH) at FiO2 = 15%, active (5 minutes dryland-based exercise circuit) in normoxia (AN) and active in hypoxia (AH), during the transitional phase, on subsequent 100 m maximal swimming performance. Thirteen competitive swimmers (n = 7 males; n = 6 females; age: 15.1±2.1 years; height: 164.7±8.8 cm; weight: 58.1±9.7 kg; 100 m season’s best time 72.0±11.8 s) completed a 20-minute standardized in-water warm-up followed by a 30‑minute randomized transitional phase and 100 m freestyle time trial. Compared to AH (73.4±6.2 s), 100 m swim time trials were significantly (p = 0.002; η2 = 0.766) slower in RN (75.7±6.7 s; p = 0.01), AN (75.2±6.7 s; p = 0.038) and RH (75.0±6.4 s; p = 0.009). Moreover, compared to AH (36.3±0.4ºC), tympanic temperature was significantly lower (p<0.001; η2 = 0.828) at the end of the transitional phase in passive conditions (RN: 35.9±0.6; p = 0.032; RH: 36.0±0.4; p = 0.05). In addition, countermovement jump height at the end of the transitional phase was significantly higher in active than in passive conditions (p = 0.001; η2 = 0.728). A dryland-based circuit under hypoxia could be useful to swimmers, once it has attenuated the decline in tympanic temperature during a 30-minute transitional phase after warm-up, improving 100 m swimming performance in young amateur swimmers
keywords:

Altitude, Circuit, Hypoxic training, Jump, Performance, Swim

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