eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
Current issue Archive Manuscripts accepted About the journal Editorial board Abstracting and indexing Subscription Contact Instructions for authors Ethical standards and procedures
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
1/2021
vol. 46
 
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abstract:
Review paper

Immunological and molecular basics of the primary open angle glaucoma pathomechanism

Katarzyna Samelska
1, 2
,
Anna Zaleska-Żmijewska
1, 2
,
Barbara Bałan
3
,
Andrzej Grąbczewski
1
,
Jacek Paweł Szaflik
1, 2
,
Aleksander Jan Kubiak
4
,
Piotr Skopiński
1, 5

1.
SPKSO Ophthalmic University Hospital, Warsaw, Poland
2.
Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
3.
Department of Immunology Biochemistry and Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
4.
Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, United States
5.
Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Cent Eur J Immunol 2021; 46 (1): 111-117
Online publish date: 2021/03/11
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Glaucoma is a degenerative process of the optic nerve. Increased intraocular pressure is believed to be the main factor leading to the glaucomatous damage. The in vitro and in vivo animal glaucoma research models provide insight into the molecular changes in the retina in response to the injury factor. The damage is a complex process incorporating molecular and immunological changes. Such changes involve NFκB activity and complement activation. The processes affect the human antigen, JNK, MAPK, p53, MT2 and DBA/2J molecular pathways, activate the autophagy processes and compromise neuroprotective mechanisms. Activation and inhibition of immunological responses contribute to cell injury. The immunological mechanisms of glaucomatous degeneration include glial response, the complement, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) pathways and toll-like receptors athways. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity are factors contributing to cell death in glaucoma. The authors present an up-to-date review of the mechanisms involved and update on research focusing on a possible innovative glaucoma treatment.
keywords:

apoptosis, oxidative stress, glaucoma, complement, autophagy, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)

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