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ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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vol. 49
Clinical immunology

Influence of dietary and lifestyle factors on levels of inflammatory markers (IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α) in obese subjects

Ewelina Polak-Szczybyło
Jacek Tabarkiewicz

  1. College of Medical Sciences, University of Rzeszów, Poland
Cent Eur J Immunol 2024; 49 (1): 19-25
Online publish date: 2024/04/15
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The low-grade inflammation occurring in obese individuals leads to many diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dietary patterns, food groups or nutrients in a well-balanced diet may reduce the level of pro-inflammatory markers and the risk of obesity-related morbidities. Our study aims to describe three cytokines in obese patients in relation to dietary habits, lifestyle and body composition.

Material and methods:
Serum samples were collected from 84 obese adult volunteer subjects [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2] to analyze the concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interferon γ (IFN-γ). The subjects were tested by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and completed a three-day food diary and original questionnaire with the FFQ-6 food consumption frequency questionnaire.

Results and conclusions:
Higher serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ were found in patients with ath- erosclerosis, but the group was too small for a reliable correlation. Subcutaneous but not visceral ad- ipose tissue correlated positively with IL-6 levels. Dietary factors such as amount of sugars, including galactose and sucrose, in the diet and the frequency of consumption of sweet flavored dairy products correlated positively with the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, while the frequency of alcohol consumption negatively correlated with the level of IL-6. The greater the frequency of sports, the higher was the level of IL-6. In obese individuals, the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines could predispose to atherosclerosis and is associated with dietary factors and lifestyle.


obesity, diet, IL-6, lifestyle, nutrients, TNF-α, IFN-γ, low-grade inflammation

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