eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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4/2018
vol. 43
 
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abstract:
Review paper

Natural antibodies – facts known and unknown

Joanna Palma
,
Beata Tokarz-Deptuła
,
Jakub Deptuła
,
Wiesław Deptuła

(Centr Eur J Immunol 2018; 43 (4): 466-475)
Online publish date: 2018/12/31
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In contrast to adaptive antibodies, natural antibodies are present in a non-immunised organism from birth, and they do not include anti-Gal antibodies and/or anti-Gal natural antibodies, which are developed as a result of the effect of the -Gal epitope and physiological flora. Natural antibodies are the first line of the organism’s defence before the formation of the immunity created via the stimulation of elements that determine specific and non-specific immunity. This is especially important in the case of infants. Despite the fact that natural antibodies differ in their function from adaptive antibodies, they are polyreactive and they detect autoantigens and new antigenic determinants. Natural antibodies are formed from the subpopulation of B lymphocytes, mainly B1 lymphocytes and B lymphocytes of the marginal zone. This phenomenon is supported by the fact that when the quantity of these cells in the organism decreases, which happens with age, the level of natural antibodies also decreases and the risk of illnesses of old age becomes higher. During ontogenesis, these antibodies participate in many physiological processes, including the “support” of the immune system and homeostasis, the prevention of inflammation, infections and other pathological states, such as autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases, or the process of carcinogenesis. The best known natural antibody is IgM, but the role of IgGs and IgAs is also considered important. Nowadays, many researchers also mention intravenous immunoglobulins, which are used in the treatment of numerous illnesses, and there are discussions on the possibility of increasing their potential if they were based on natural antibodies.
keywords:

immunology, antibodies, natural antibodies, B1 lymphocytes, immunoglobulin

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