Biology of Sport
eISSN: 2083-1862
ISSN: 0860-021X
Biology of Sport
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vol. 38
Original paper

Performance and reference data in the jump squat at different relative loads in elite sprinters, rugby players, and soccer players

Irineu Loturco
1, 2, 3
Michael R. McGuigan
4, 5
Tomás T. Freitas
1, 2, 6
Pedro L. Valenzuela
7, 8
Lucas A. Pereira
1, 2
Fernando Pareja-Blanco

NAR – Nucleus of High Performance in Sport, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Human Movement Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
University of South Wales, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom
Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ), Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia
UCAM Research Center for High Performance Sport – Catholic University of Murcia, UCAM, Spain
Department of Systems Biology, University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain
Department of Sport and Health, Spanish Agency for Health Protection in Sport (AEPSAD), Madrid, Spain
Physical Performance & Sports Research Center, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain
Biol Sport. 2021;38(2):219–227
Online publish date: 2020/09/03
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The aims of this study were to compare the outcomes and provide reference data for a set of barbell mechanical parameters collected via a linear velocity transducer in 126 male sprinters (n = 62), rugby players (n = 32), and soccer players (n = 32). Bar-velocity, bar-force, and bar-power outputs were assessed in the jump-squat exercise with jump-squat height determined from bar-peak velocity. The test started at a load of 40% of the athletes’ body mass (BM), and a load of 10% of BM was gradually added until a clear decrement in the bar power was observed. Comparisons of bar variables among the three sports were performed using a one-way analysis of variance. Relative measures of bar velocity, force, and power, and jump-squat height were significantly higher in sprinters than in rugby (difference ranging between 5 and 35%) and soccer (difference ranging between 5 and 60%) players across all loads (40–110% of BM). Rugby players exhibited higher absolute bar-power (mean difference = 22%) and bar-force (mean difference = 16%) values than soccer players, but these differences no longer existed when the data were adjusted for BM (mean difference = 2.5%). Sprinters optimized their bar-power production at significantly greater relative loads (%BM) than rugby (mean difference = 22%) and soccer players (mean difference = 25%); nonetheless, all groups generated their maximum bar-power outputs at similar bar velocities. For the first time, we provided reference values for the jump-squat exercise for three different bar-velocity measures (i.e., mean, mean propulsive, and peak velocity) for sprinters, rugby players, and soccer players, over a wide range of relative loads. Practitioners can use these reference values to monitor their athletes and compare them with top-level sprinters and team-sport players.

Ballistic exercises, Loaded jumps, Olympic athletes, Track and field, Resistance training, Power output

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