Biology of Sport
eISSN: 2083-1862
ISSN: 0860-021X
Biology of Sport
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4/2022
vol. 39
 
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abstract:
Original paper

Ramadan intermittent fasting induced poorer training practices during the COVID-19 lockdown: A global cross-sectional study with 5529 athletes from 110 countries

Jad Adrian Washif
1
,
David B. Pyne
2
,
Øyvind Sandbakk
3
,
Khaled Trabelsi
4, 5
,
Abdul Rashid Aziz
6
,
Christopher Martyn Beaven
7
,
Isabel Krug
8
,
Iñigo Mujika
9, 10
,
Achraf Ammar
11, 12
,
Anis Chaouachi
13, 14
,
Imen Moussa-Chamari
15
,
Asma Aloui
16, 17
,
Hamdi Chtourou
16, 4
,
Abdulaziz Farooq
18
,
Monoem Haddad
15
,
Mohamed Romdhani
16
,
Paul Salamh
19
,
Montassar Tabben
18
,
Del P. Wong
20
,
Yacine Zerguini
21, 22
,
Matthew D. DeLang
23
,
Lee Taylor
24, 25, 26
,
Helmi Ben Saad
27, 28
,
Karim Chamari
18

1.
Sports Performance Division, Institut Sukan Negara Malaysia (National Sports Institute of Malaysia), 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2.
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia
3.
Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian, University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
4.
High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
5.
Research Laboratory: Education, Motricity, Sport and Health, EM2S, LR19JS01, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
6.
Sport Science and Sport Medicine, Singapore Sport Institute, Sport Singapore, Singapore
7.
Division of Health, Engineering, Computing and Science, Te Huataki Waiora School of Health, University of Waikato, Tauranga, New Zealand
8.
Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
9.
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Basque Co
10.
Exercise Science Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Finis Terrae, Santiago, Chile
11.
Institute of Sport Sciences, Otto-von-Guericke University, 39104 Magdeburg, Germany
12.
Interdisciplinary Laboratory in Neurosciences, Physiology and Psychology: Physical Activity, Health and Learning (LINP2), UFR STAPS, UPL, Paris Nanterre University, Nanterre, France
13.
Tunisian Research Laboratory, Sport Performance Optimisation, National Center of Medicine and Science in Sports (CNMSS), Tuni
14.
AUT University, Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand
15.
Physical Education Department, College of Education, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
16.
Physical Activity, Sport & Health Research Unit (UR18JS01), National Sport Observatory, Tunis, Tunisia
17.
High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, University of Gafsa, Tunisia
18.
Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Doha, Qatar
19.
Krannert School of Physical Therapy, University of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, USA
20.
School of Nursing and Health Studies, Hong Kong Metropolitan University, Hong Kong
21.
FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence Algiers, Algeria
22.
Medical Committee, Confederation of African Football, Egypt
23.
Right to Dream Academy, Old Akrade, Ghana
24.
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University. National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine (NCSEM), Loughborough, United Kingdom
25.
Human Performance Research Centre, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia
26.
Sport & Exercise Discipline Group, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia
27.
Laboratoire de Recherche “insuffisance cardiaque” (LR12SP09), Hôpital Farhat HACHED, Université de Sousse, Sousse, Tunisie
28.
Laboratoire de Physiologie, Faculté de Médicine de Sousse, Université de Sousse, Sousse, Tunisie
Biol Sport. 2022;39(4):1103–1115
Online publish date: 2022/06/27
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PlumX metrics:
Ramadan intermittent fasting during the COVID-19 lockdown (RIFL) may present unique demands. We investigated training practices (i.e., training load and training times) of athletes, using pre-defined survey criteria/questions, during the ‘first’ COVID-19 lockdown, comparing RIFL to lockdown-alone (LD) in Muslim athletes. Specifically, a within-subject, survey-based study saw athletes (n = 5,529; from 110 countries/territories) training practices (comparing RIFL to LD) explored by comparative variables of: sex; age; continent; athlete classification (e.g., world-class); sport classification (e.g., endurance); athlete status (e.g., professional); and level of training knowledge and beliefs/attitudes (ranked as: good/moderate/poor). During RIFL (compared to LD), athlete perceptions (ranges presented given variety of comparative variables) of their training load decreased (46–62%), were maintained (31–48%) or increased (2–13%). Decreases (≥ 5%, p < 0.05) affected more athletes aged 30–39 years than those 18–29 years (60 vs 55%); more national than international athletes (59 vs 51%); more team sports than precision sports (59 vs 46%); more North American than European athletes (62 vs 53%); more semi-professional than professional athletes (60 vs 54%); more athletes who rated their beliefs/attitudes ‘good’ compared to ‘poor’ and ‘moderate’ (61 vs 54 and 53%, respectively); and more athletes with ‘moderate’ than ‘poor’ knowledge (58 vs 53%). During RIFL, athletes had different strategies for training times, with 13–29% training twice a day (i.e., afternoon and night), 12–26% at night only, and 18–36% in the afternoon only, with ranges depending on the comparative variables. Training loads and activities were altered negatively during RIFL compared to LD. It would be prudent for decision-makers responsible for RIFL athletes to develop programs to support athletes during such challenges.
keywords:

Crowdsource data, Global sports, Vulnerable athletes, Remote training, Training perception, Training load

 
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