eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
Current issue Archive Manuscripts accepted About the journal Editorial board Abstracting and indexing Subscription Contact Instructions for authors Ethical standards and procedures
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
1/2021
vol. 46
 
Share:
Share:
more
 
 
abstract:
Editorial

The dual role of the immune system in the course of COVID-19. The fatal impact of the aging immune system

Janusz Marcinkiewicz
1
,
Jacek M. Witkowski
2
,
Rafał Olszanecki
3

1.
Chair of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
2.
Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland
3.
Chair of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
Cent Eur J Immunol 2021; 46 (1): 1-9
Online publish date: 2021/04/18
View full text
Get citation
ENW
EndNote
BIB
JabRef, Mendeley
RIS
Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero
AMA
APA
Chicago
Harvard
MLA
Vancouver
 
COVID-19 is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Since October 2020 the second wave of the pandemic has been observed around the world, as pathogen specific herd immunity has not been built yet. Moreover, the current, more contagious pathogen carrying the D614G mutation has become the globally dominant form of SARS-CoV-2.

In this article we present the current state of knowledge on the impact of ACE2 and the reninangiotensin system (RAS) and the innate immune system on different outcomes of COVID-19. Especially, we point out the dual role of the immune system and ACE2 in pathogenesis of the disease. Namely, at the initial stage of the infection anti-viral activity of innate immunity is responsible for inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication. On the other hand, a dysregulated immune response may cause the detrimental hyperinflammation (“cytokine storm”) responsible for the severe course of the disease. Concomitantly, we analyse the roles of ACE2 in both facilitation of infection and abrogation of its effects, as the major cellular entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and an important enzyme responsible for tissue protection, respectively. Finally, we discuss the dominant impact of aging on the fatal outcome of COVID-19.
keywords:

COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, cytokine storm, inflammaging, angiotensin, ACE2, immu­nosenescence, interferon

Quick links
© 2021 Termedia Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Developed by Bentus.
PayU - płatności internetowe