Biology of Sport
eISSN: 2083-1862
ISSN: 0860-021X
Biology of Sport
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vol. 36
Original paper

The influence of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D gene polymorphism on cardiovascular and muscular adaptations following 8 weeks of isometric handgrip training (IHG) in untrained normotensive males

Hazwani Ahmad Yusof, Abdul Rashid Aziz, Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed

Biol Sport. 2019;36(1):81–94.
Online publish date: 2018/12/12
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We examined the association between the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D gene polymorphism and isometric handgrip (IHG) training on cardiovascular and muscular responses among normotensive males. Thirty (II = 10, ID = 10, and DD = 10) normotensive untrained males underwent IHG training at 30% of their maximal voluntary contraction 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Cardiovascular and muscular variables were measured before IHG, after a session of IHG and after 8 weeks of IHG. No significant interaction effect was found between ACE I/D genotype and IHG training session on all dependent variables (all p > 0.05). There was a significant main effect of IHG training session on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.002), mean arterial pressure (MAP) (p = 0.015) and handgrip strength (HGS) (p = 0.001) scores, while no difference in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure, or heart rate scores was found. A greater improvement in cardiovascular parameters following 8 weeks of IHG training was observed in participants with the D allele than the I allele (SBP reduction: ID+DD genotype group (-5.53 ± 6.2 mmHg) vs. II genotype group (-1.52 ± 5.3 mmHg)); MAP reduction: ID + DD genotype group (-2.80 ± 4.5 mmHg) vs. II genotype group (-1.45 ± 3.5 mmHg). Eight weeks of IHG training improved cardiovascular and muscular performances of normotensive men. Reduction in SBP and MAP scores in D allele carriers compared to I allele carriers indicates that the ACE I/D polymorphism may have an influence on IHG training adaptation in a normotensive population.

ACE I/D gene polymorphism, IHG training, Normotensive, Blood pressure management

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