eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
Current issue Archive Manuscripts accepted About the journal Editorial board Abstracting and indexing Subscription Contact Instructions for authors Ethical standards and procedures
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
2/2020
vol. 45
 
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abstract:

Vaccination in children with chronic severe neutropenia – review of recommendations and a practical approach

Szymon Janczar
1
,
Beata Zalewska-Szewczyk
1
,
Katarzyna Bąbol-Pokora
1
,
Jarosław Paśnik
2
,
Krzysztof Zeman
2
,
Wojciech Młynarski
1

1.
Department of Pediatrics, Oncology and Hematology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
2.
Department of Pediatrics, Immunology and Nephrology, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Poland
Cent Eur J Immunol 2020; 45 (2): 202-205
Online publish date: 2020/07/27
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While the management of childhood neutropenia associated with a modifiable factor should be appropriate for the primary cause, there are misconceptions regarding the management of severe congenital neutropenia, immune neutropenia and cases classified as “idiopathic”. Antibiotic prophylaxis or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) are prescribed by specialists in pediatric hematology or immunology, whereas immunization may be conducted by primary care physicians should clear recommendations by provided. There is a belief that severe neutropenia, as an immunodeficiency, is associated with compromised effectiveness and increased rate of complications of immunization. The immunization might be delayed or omitted, increasing the risk of unnecessary infection. We discuss the available data and recommendations regarding vaccination of children with chronic severe neutropenia. While there are virtually no studies addressing the safety and effectiveness of vaccination in neutropenia, expert opinions provide information on immunization policy in “phagocytic cells defects” or explicitly neutropenia. There are no contraindications for inactivated vaccines in neutropenia. Live bacterial vaccines are contraindicated. While in general the vaccination with live viral vaccines is encouraged, occasionally neutropenia might be associated with defects of adaptive immunity, which would preclude the administration of such vaccines. Although this should be easily phenotypically identified, we propose assessing immunoglobulin levels and performing a low-cost flow cytometry test for major lymphocyte subpopulations to exclude significant defects in adaptive immunity before administration of live viral vaccines to such patients. This can improve the adherence of patients’ guardians and physicians to proposed vaccination policy and the professional and legal safety associated with the procedure.
keywords:

immunodeficiency, vaccine, immunization, severe neutropenia

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