eISSN: 2081-2841
ISSN: 1689-832X
Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
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vol. 15
Original paper

Validation of the bladder neck as an important organ at risk in prostate seed brachytherapy based on D2cc: A single-institution, retrospective review

Neil D. Wallace
Karen L. Olden
Victoria S. Brennan
Mohd Mat Samuji
Muhammad Faisal Jamaluddin
Gerard McVey
Mary T. Dunne
Paul J. Kelly

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cork University Hospital, Ireland
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA
Bon Secours Radiotherapy Cork in partnership with UPMC Hillman Cancer Centre, Ireland
Department of Radiation Oncology, St Luke’s Radiation Oncology Network, Dublin, Ireland
Clinical Trials Unit, St Luke’s Radiation Oncology Network, Dublin, Ireland
J Contemp Brachytherapy 2023; 15, 2: 96–102
Online publish date: 2023/03/30
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International guidelines recommend urethral dose volume constraints to minimize the risk of urinary toxicity after prostate brachytherapy. An association between dose to the bladder neck (BN) and toxicity has previously been reported, and we sought to evaluate the impact of this organ at risk on urinary toxicity, based on intra-operative contouring.

Material and methods:
Rates of acute and late urinary toxicity (AUT and LUT, respectively) were graded according to CTCAE version 5.0 for 209 consecutive patients who underwent low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy monotherapy, with approximately equal numbers treated before and after we began routinely contouring the BN. AUT and LUT were compared in patients treated before and after we began contouring the OAR, and also for those treated after we began contouring who had a D2cc of greater than or less than 50% prescription dose.

AUT and LUT fell after intra-operative BN contouring was instituted. Rates of grade ≥ 2 AUT fell from 15/101 (15%) to 9/104 (8.6%), p = 0.245. Grade ≥ 2 LUT decreased from 32/100 (32%) to 18/100 (18%), p = 0.034. Grade ≥ 2 AUT was observed in 4/63 (6.3%) and 5/34 (15%) of those with a BN D2cc >/≤ 50%, respectively, of prescription dose. Corresponding rates for LUT were 11/62 (18%) and 5/32 (16%).

There were lower urinary toxicity rates for patients treated after we commenced routine intra-operative contouring of the BN. No clear relationship was observed between dosimetry and toxicity in our population.


LDR brachytherapy, prostate, bladder neck, urinary toxicity

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