eISSN: 2081-2841
ISSN: 1689-832X
Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
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vol. 15
Original paper

Dosimetric comparison between microSelectron iridium-192 and flexi cobalt-60 sources in high-dose-rate brachytherapy using Geant4 Monte Carlo code

Tsige Yhidego Gebremariam
1, 2, 3
Ghazale Geraily
1, 2, 4
Hussam Hameed Jassim
5, 6
Somayeh Gholami

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, International Campus, Tehran, Iran
Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, Aksum University, Axum, Ethiopia
Radiation Oncology Research Center, Cancer Institute, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Najaf Cancer Center, Najaf Hospital, Najaf, Iraq
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
J Contemp Brachytherapy 2023; 15, 2: 141–147
Online publish date: 2023/03/29
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Manufacturing of miniaturized high activity iridium-192 (192Ir) sources have been made a market preference in modern brachytherapy. Smaller dimensions of the sources are flexible for smaller diameter of the applicators, and it is also suitable for interstitial implants. Presently, cobalt-60 (60Co) sources have been commercialized as an alternative to 192Ir sources for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, since 60Co source have an advantage of longer half-life comparing with 192Ir source. One of them is the HDR 60Co Flexisource manufactured by Elekta. The purpose of this study was to compare the TG-43 dosimetric parameters of HDR flexi 60Co and HDR microSelectron 192Ir sources.

Material and methods:
Monte Carlo simulation code of Geant4 (v.11.0) was applied. Following the recommendations of AAPM TG-43 formalism report, Monte Carlo code of HDR flexi 60Co and HDR microSelectron 192Ir was validated by calculating radial dose function, anisotropy function, and dose-rate constants in a water phantom. Finally, results of both radionuclide sources were compared.

The calculated dose-rate constants per unit air-kerma strength in water medium were 1.108 cGy h-1U-1 for HDR microSelectron 192Ir, and 1.097 cGy h-1U-1 for HDR flexi 60Co source, with the percentage uncertainty of 1.1% and 0.2%, respectively. The values of radial dose function for distances above 22 cm for HDR flexi 60Co source were higher than that of the other source. The anisotropic values sharply increased to the longitudinal sides of HDR flexi 60Co source, and the rise was comparatively sharper to that of the other source.

The primary photons from the lower-energy HDR microSelectron 192Ir source have a limited range and are partially attenuated when considering the results of radial and anisotropic dose distribution functions. This implies that a HDR flexi 60Co radionuclide could be used to treat tumors beyond the source compared with a HDR microSelectron 192Ir source, despite the fact that 192Ir has a lower exit dose than HDR flexi 60Co radionuclide source.


Monte Carlo dosimetry, brachytherapy, flexi HDR 60Co, microSelectron HDR 192Ir, Geant4

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