eISSN: 1509-572x
ISSN: 1641-4640
Folia Neuropathologica
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
2/2012
vol. 50
 
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abstract:

Review paper
Postischemic dementia with Alzheimer phenotype: selectively vulnerable versus resistant areas of the brain and neurodegeneration versus β-amyloid peptide

Ryszard Pluta
,
Mirosław Jabłoński
,
Stanisław J. Czuczwar

Folia Neuropathol 2012; 50 (2): 101-109
Online publish date: 2012/06/27
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The road to clarity for postischemic dementia mechanisms has been one fraught with a wide range of complications and numerous revisions with a lack of a final solution. Importantly, brain ischemia is a leading cause of death and cognitive impairment worldwide. However, the mechanisms of progressive cognitive decline following brain ischemia are not yet certain. Data from animal models and clinical pioneering studies of brain ischemia have demonstrated an increase in expression and processing of amyloid precursor protein to a neurotoxin oligomeric β-amyloid peptide. Functional and memory brain restoration after ischemic brain injury is delayed and incomplete due to a lesion related increase in the amount of the neurotoxin amyloid protein. Moreover, ischemic injury is strongly accelerated by aging, too. In this review, we will present our current thinking about biogenesis of amyloid from the amyloid precursor protein in ischemic brain injury, and how this factor presents etiological, therapeutic and diagnostic targets that are now under consideration. Progressive injury of the ischemic brain parenchyma may be caused not only by degeneration of selectively vulnerable neurons destroyed during ischemia but also by acute and chronic damage of resistant areas of the brain and progressive damage in the blood-brain barrier. We propose that in postischemic dementia an initial ischemic injury precedes the cerebrovascular and brain parenchyma accumulation of Alzheimer disease related neurotoxin β-amyloid peptide, which in turn amplifies the neurovascular dysfunction triggering focal ischemic episodes as a vicious cycle preceding final neurodegenerative pathology. Persistent ischemic blood-brain barrier insufficiency with accumulation of neurotoxin β-amyloid protein in the brain tissue, especially in extracellular perivascular space and blood-brain barrier microvessels, may gradually, over a lifetime, progress to brain atrophy and to full-blown ischemic dementia with Alzheimer phenotype.
keywords:

brain ischemia, postischemic dementia, Alzheimer’s factors, hippocampus, β-amyloid peptide

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