eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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vol. 45
Clinical immunology

Th17 and regulatory T cells in patients with different time of progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Juan Manuel Guzmán-Flores
1, 2
Joel Ramírez-Emiliano
Victoriano Pérez-Vázquez
Sergio López-Briones

Department of Medical Sciences, Campus León, University of Guanajuato, León, Guanajuato, México
Department of Clinics, Los Altos University Center, University of Guadalajara, Tepatitlán de Morelos, Jalisco, Mexico
Department of Medicine and Nutrition, Division of Health Sciences, Campus León, University of Guanajuato, Guanajuato, México
(Centr Eur J Immunol 2020; 45 (1): 29-36)
Online publish date: 2020/04/06
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and altered lipid metabolism, which is caused mainly by non-functional or lack of secretion of insulin by b pancreatic cells [1]. T2DM is a major health problem worldwide, but it is most notable in low- and middle-income countries, including Mexico [2]. Moreover, obesity-associated chronic inflammation is a key contributing factor to develop T2DM, and several studies have clearly demonstrated that both immune system and metabolism are highly linked [3-5]. Previous studies, such as of Hotamisligil et al. [6], established the concept of obesity-induced inflammation demonstrating high levels of TNF-a in obese mice with insulin resistance, and this phenomenon was ameliorated after TNF-a neutralization. Subsequently, other cytokines were associated with insulin resistance and diabetes [7]. Also, immune cells were associated to obesity and T2DM [3, 4], especially monocytes and macrophages. Thus, monocytes from T2DM patients exhibit a pro-inflammatory profile, secreting high levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, and IL-1b [8]. These cytokines induce insulin resistance with inhibition of signaling via the insulin receptor [7]. Interestingly, recent findings have shown that cells from the adaptive immune system could also contribute to inflammation associated to T2DM [3, 9].
Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis of the immune system [3]. These cells prevent inflammatory responses, through the suppression of effector T cells to self-antigens, commensal microorganisms, allergens, and pathogens [10]. On the other hand, Th17 cells are characterized by producing IL-17. The IL-17 is comprised of a family of cytokines such as IL-17A to IL-17F. The IL-17A is the most important member, because it promotes inflammation through the activation of several cells including monocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, which produce pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the stimulation, mobilization, recruitment, and activation of granulocytes [11, 12]. Furthermore, visceral adipose tissue demonstrated that CD4+Th1 cells and CD4+CD25h Treg play an important role in the regulation of body weight, adipocyte hypertrophy, insulin resistance, glucose tolerance, and T2DM progression in both mice and humans [13, 14]. Another study showed that cells producing IL-17 depended on the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in spleen of obese...

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Th17, Treg, diabetes mellitus

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