eISSN: 1509-572x
ISSN: 1641-4640
Folia Neuropathologica
Current issue Archive Manuscripts accepted About the journal Abstracting and indexing Subscription Contact Instructions for authors
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
1/2018
vol. 56
 
Share:
Share:
more
 
 
abstract:
Review paper

The quantitative analysis of neurodegenerative disease: classification, noda, constellations, and multivariate geometry

Richard A. Armstrong

Folia Neuropathol 2018; 56 (1): 1-13
Online publish date: 2018/03/28
View full text
Get citation
ENW
EndNote
BIB
JabRef, Mendeley
RIS
Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero
AMA
APA
Chicago
Harvard
MLA
Vancouver
 
A variety of methods are available for the quantitative description and analysis of neurodegenerative disease. If neurodegenerative disease exists as a series of distinct disorders, then classificatory methods such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and decision tree analysis (DTA) can be used to classify cases into groups more objectively. If neurodegenerative disease consists of overlapping phenotypes, then the Braun-Blanquet ‘nodal’ system and ‘constellation diagrams’ implicitly recognise intermediate cases and reveal their relationships to the main groupings. By contrast, if cases are more continuously distributed without easily distinguishable disease entities, then methods based on spatial geometry, such as a triangular system or principal components analysis (PCA), may be more appropriate as they display cases spatially according to their similarities and differences. This review compares the different methods and concludes that as a result of the heterogeneity and overlap commonly present plus the multiplicity of possible descriptive variables, methods such as PCA are likely to be particularly useful in the quantitative analysis of neurodegenerative disease. A more general application of such methods, however, has implications for studies of disease risk factors and pathogenesis and in clinical trials.
keywords:

neurodegenerative disease, distinct disorder, overlapping phenotypes, continuum, multiple pathology, classification, principal components analysis (PCA)

references:
Agnew ADQ. The ecology of Juncus effusus in North Wales. J Ecol 1961; 49: 83-102.
Aguilar C, Westman E, Muehlboeck JS, Mecocci P, Vellas B, Tsolaki M, Kloszewska I, Soininen H, Lovestone S, Spenger C, Simmons A, Wahlund LO. Different multivariate techinques for automated classification of MRI data in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Psychiatry Res 2013; 212: 89-98.
Alzheimer A. Über eine eigenartige Erkrankung der Hirnrinde. Allge Zeitsch Psychiatr und Psychisch-Gerich Med 1907; 64: 146-148.
Amador-Ortiz C, Lin WL, Ahmed Z, Personett D, Davies P, Dara R, Graff-Radford NR, Hutton ML, Dickson DW. TDP-43 immunoreactivity in hippocampal sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol 2007; 61: 435-445.
Andin U, Gustafson L, Passant U, Brun A. A clinic-pathological study of heart and brain lesions in vascular dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn 2005; 19: 222-228.
Armstrong RA. Quantifying the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders: quantitative measurements, sampling strategies and data analysis. Histopathology 2003; 42: 521-529.
Armstrong RA. The interface between Alzheimer’s disease, normal aging and related disorders. Curr Aging Sci 2008; 1: 122-132.
Armstrong RA. On the ‘classification’ of neurodegenerative disorders: discrete entities, overlap, or continuum? Folia Neuropathol 2012; 50: 201-208.
Armstrong RA. Can neurodegenerative disease be defined by four ‘primary determinants’: anatomy, cells, molecules, and morphology? Folia Neuropathol 2016; 54: 89-104.
Armstrong RA, Wood L. The identification of pathological subtypes of Alzheimer’s disease using cluster analysis. Acta Neuropathol 1994; 88: 60-66.
Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL. The spatial patterns of Lewy bodies, senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Dementia with Lewy bodies. Exp Neurol 1998; 150: 122-127.
Armstrong RA, Nochlin D, Bird TD. Neuropathological heterogeneity in Alzheimer’s disease: A study of 80 cases using principal components analysis. Neuropathology 2000; 20: 31-37.
Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lanto PL. A quantitative study of the pathological lesions in the neocortex and hippocampus of 12 patients with corticobasal degeneration. Exp Neurol 2000; 163: 348-356.
Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL. Overlap between neurodegenerative disorders. Neuropathology 2005; 25: 111-124.
Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): a quantitative study of the pathological changes in cortical and subcortical areas of eight cases. J Neural Transm 2007; 114: 1569-1577.
Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ. What determines the molecular composition of abnormal protein aggregates in neurodegenerative disease? Neuropathology 2008; 28: 351-365.
Armstrong RA, Ellis W, Hamilton RL, Mackenzie IRA, Hedreen J, Gearing M, Montine T, Vonsattel J-P, Head E, Lieberman AP, Cairns NJ. Neuropathological heterogeneity in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy: a quantitative study of 94 cases using principal components analysis. J Neural Transm 2010; 117: 227-239.
Arnold SE, Toledo JB, Appleby DH, Xie SX, Wang LS, Baek Y, Wolk DA, Lee EB, Miller BL, Lee VMY, Trojanowski JQ. Comparative survey of the topographical distribution of signature molecular lesions in major neurodegenerative disease. J Comp Neurol 2013; 521: 4339-4353.
Bombois S, Duhamel A, Salleron J, Deramecourt V, Mackowiak MA, Deken V, Sergeant N, Pasquier F, Buee L, Sabionniere B, Schraen-Maschke S. A new decision tree combing Abeta 1-42, and p-tau levels in Alzheimer’s diagnosis. Curr Alz Res 2013; 10: 357-364.
Braun-Blanquet J. Pfanzensoziologie. 2nd ed. Springer, Vienna, 1951.
Breiman L, Friedman JH, Olshen R, Stone C. Classification and regression trees. Wadsworth and Brooks, Pacific Grove 1984.
Cairns NJ, Bigio EH, Mackenzie IRA, Neumann M, Lee VMY, Hatanpaa KJ, White CL, Schneider JA, Grinberg LT, Halliday G, Duyckaerts C, Lowe JS, Holm IE, Tolnay M, Okamoto K, Yokoo H, Murayama S, Woulfe J, Munoz DG, Dickson DW, Ince PG, Trojanowski JQ, Mann DMA. Neuropathologic diagnostic and nosological criteria for frontotemporal lobar degeneration: consensus of the Consortium for Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration. Acta Neuropathol 2007; 114: 5-22.
Chwiej J. The use of cluster and discriminant analysis in the investigations of the role of trace metals in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. J Trace Elem Med Bio 2010; 24: 78-88.
Clifford HT, Sokal R. An Introduction to Numerical Classification. Academic Press, New York 1975.
Cortes C, Vapnik V. Support-vector networks. Mach Learn 1995; 20: 273-297.
Crary JF, Trojanowski JQ, Schneider JA, Abisambra JF, Abner EL, Alafuzoff I, Arnold SE, Attems J, Beach TG, Bigio EH, Cairns NJ, Dickson DW, Gearing M, Grinberg LT, Hof PR, Hyman BT, Jellin­ger K, Jicha GA, Kovacs GG, Knopman PS, Kofler J, Kukull WA, McKenzie IR, Masliah E, McKee A, Montine TJ, Murray ME, Neltner JH, Santa Maria I, Seeley WW, Serrano-Pozo A, Shelanski ML, Stein T, Takao M, Thal DR, Toledo JB, Troncoso J, Vonsat­tel JP, White CL, Wisniewski T, Woltjer RL, Yamada M, Nelson PT. Primary age-related tauopathy (PART): a common pathology associated with human aging. Acta Neuropathol 2014; 128: 755-766.
Creutzfeldt HG. Über eines eigenartige herd-formige Erk­ran­kung des Zentralnervensystems. In: Nissl F, Alzheimer A (eds.). Histologische und Histopathologische Arbeiten über die Grosshirnrinde. Gustav Fisher, Jena 1921; 1-48.
De Vries DM. Objective combinations of species. Acta Bot Neerl 1953; 1: 497-499.
Dickson DW, Ruan D, Crystal H, Mark MH, Davies P, Kress Y, Yen SH. Hippocampal degeneration differentiates diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) from Alzheimer’s disease: Light and electron microscope immunocytochemistry of CA2-3 neurites specific to DLBD. Neurology 1991; 41: 1402-1409.
Dickson DW. Neuropathology of non-Alzheimer degenerative disorders. Int J Clin Exp Path 2009; 3: 1-23
Drouet B, Pincon-Raymond M, Chambaz J, Pillot T. Molecular basis of Alzheimer’s disease. Cell Mol Life Sci 2000; 57: 705-715.
Feany MB, Dickson DW. Neurodegenerative disorders with extensive tau pathology: a comparative study and review. Ann Neurol 1996; 40: 139-148.
Fernando MS, Ince PG. Vascular pathologies and cognition in a population-based cohort of elderly people. J Neurol Sci 2004; 226: 13-17.
Forman MS, Trojanowski JQ, Lee VMY. Neurodegenerative diseases: a decade of discoveries paves the way for therapeutic breakthroughs. Nat Med 2004; 10: 1055-1063.
Forstl H. Alzheimer’s disease: the size of the problem, clinical manifestation and heterogeneity. J Neural Transm 1998; 54: 1-8.
Forstl H. The Lewy body variant of Alzheimer’s disease: clinical, pathophysiological and conceptual issues. Eur Arch Psych Clin Neurol 1999; 249: 64-67.
Goodall DW. Objective methods for the classification of vegetation. I. The use of positive interspecific correlation. Aust J Bot 1953; 1: 39-63.
Grime JP. Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. John Wiley & Sons, London 1979.
Gutierrez SLM, Rivero MH, Ramirez NC, Hernandez E, Aranda-Abreu GE. Decision trees for the analysis of genes involved in Alzheimer’s disease pathology. J Theor Biol 2014; 357: 21-25.
Hainfellner JA, Wanschitz J, Jellinger K, Liberski PP, Gullotta F, Budka H. Coexistence of Alzheimer type neuropathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Acta Neuropathol 1998; 96: 116-122.
Hardy J, Gwinn-Hardy K. Genetic classification of primary neurodegenerative disease. Science 1998; 282: 1075-1079.
Hariharan M, Polat K, Sindhu R. A new hybrid intelligent system for accurate detection of Parkinson’s disease. Comp Meth Prog Biomed 2014; 113: 904-913.
Harrington CR, Perry RH, Perry EK, Hurt J, McKeith JG, Roth M, Wischik CM. Senile dementia of the Lewy body type and Alzheimer type are biochemically distinct in terms of paired helical filaments and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Dementia 1994; 5: 215-228.
Hyman BT, Phelps CH, Beach TG, Bigio EH, Cairns NJ, Carrillo MC, Dickson DW, Duyckaerts C, Frosch MP, Masliah E, Mirra SS, Nelson PT, Schneider JA, Thal DR, Thies B, Trojanowski JQ, Vinters HV, Montine TJ. National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association guidelines for the neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 2012; 8: 1-13.
Jakob A. Über eigenartige Erkrankungen des Zentralnervensystems mit bemerkenswerten anatomischen Befunden (spastische Pseudosklerose-Encephalomyelopathic mit disseminierten Degenerationsherden). Dtsch Z Nervenheilk 1921; 70: 132-146.
Jellinger KA, Attems J. Challenges of multimorbidity of the aging brain: a critical update. J Neural Transm 2015; 122: 505-521.
Josephs KA. Frontotemporal dementia and related disorders: Deciphering the enigma. Ann Neurol 2008; 64: 4-14.
Josephs KA, Holton JL, Rossor MN, Braendgaard H, Ozawa T, Fox NC, Petersen RC, Pearl GS, Ganguly M, Rosa P, Laursen H, Parisi JE, Waldemar G, Quinn NP, Dickson DW, Revesz T. Neurofi­lament inclusion body disease: a new proteinopathy? Brain 2003; 126: 2291-2303.
Kumar A, Singh TR. A new decision tree to solve the puzzle of Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis through standard diagnosis scoring system. Interdiscip Sci 2017; 9: 107-115.
Lantos PL, Papp MI. Cellular pathology of multiple system atrophy: a review. J Neurol Neurosur Psychiatry 1994; 57: 129-113.
Leonardi N, Richiardi J, Gschwind M, Simioni S, Annoni JM, Schluep M, Vulleumier P, Van De Ville D. Principal components of functional connectivity: A new approach to study dynamic brain connectivity during rest. Neuroimage 2013; 83: 937-950.
Lewy FH. ‘Paralysis agitans’. I. Pathologische Anatomie. In: Handbuch der Neurologie. Lewandowsky M (ed.). Julius Springer, Berlin 1912; 920-933.
Lim A, Tsuang D, Kukull D, Nochlin D, Leverenz J, McCormick W, Bowen J, Teri L, Thompson J, Peskind ER, Raskind M, Larsen EB. Clinico-neuropatholgoical correlation of Alzheimer’s disease in a community-based case series. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 564-569.
Litvan I, Agid Y, Calne D, Campbell G, Dubois B, Davoisin RC, Goetz CG, Golbe LI, Grafman J, Growden JH, Hallett M, Jankovic J, Quinn NP, Tolisa E, Zee DS, Chase TN, FitzGibbon EJ, Hall Z, Juncos J, Nelson KB, Oliver E, Pramstaller P, Reich SG, Verny M. Clinical research criteria for the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome): report of the NINDS-SPSP International Workshop. Neurology 1996; 47: 1-9.
Mackenzie IRA, Neumann M, Baborie, Sampathu DM, Du Plessis D, Jaros E, Perry RH, Trojanoswki JQ, Mann DMA, Lee VMY. A harmonized classification system for FTLD-TDP pathology. Acta Neuropathol 2011; 122: 111-113.
Mariu W, Iseki E, Kosaka K, Kato M, Adachi Y, Ueda K. An autopsied case of Down’s syndrome with Alzheimer pathology and alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity. Neuropathology 1999; 19: 410-416.
McKeith IG, Galasko D, Kosaka K, Perry EK, Dickson DW, Hansen LA, Salmon DP, Lowe J, Mirra SS, Byrne EJ, Lennox G, Quinn NP, Edwardson JA, Ince PG, Bergeron C, Burns A, Miller BL, Lovestone S, Collerton D, Jansen ENH, Ballard C, de Vos RAI, Wilcock GK, Jellinger KA, Perry RH. Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathological diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): Report of the consortium on DLB international workshop. Neurology 1996; 47: 1113-1124.
Morris JC. The nosology of dementia. Neurol Clin 2000; 18: 773-788.
Papp MI, Kahn JE, Lantos PL. Glial cytoplasmic inclusions in the CNS of patients with multiple system atrophy (striatonigral degeneration, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, and Shy-Drager syndrome). J Neurol Sci 1989; 94: 79-100.
Perl DP, Olanow CW, Calne D. Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease: distinct entities or extremes of a spectrum of neurodegeneration? Ann Neurol 1998; 44: S19-S31.
Petrovitch H, Ross GW, Steinhorn SC, Abbott RD, Markesbury W, Davis D, Nelson J, Hardman J, Masaki KH, Vogt MR, Launer LJ, White LR. AD lesions and infarcts in demented and non-demented Japanese-American men. Ann Neurol 2005; 57: 98-103.
Pick A. Über einen weiteren Symptomenkomplex im Rahman der Dementia senilis, bedingt durch umschriebene starkere Hirnatrophie (gemischte Apraxie). Monat Psych Neurol 1906; 19: 97-108.
Pielou EC. An introduction to Mathematical Ecology. John Wiley, New York, London, Sydney and Toronto 1969.
Quinlan JR. Simplifying decision trees. Int J Man-Machine Studies 1987; 27: 221-234.
Ranasinghe KG, Rankin KP, Pressman PS, Perry DC, Lobach IV, Seeley WW, Coppola G, Karydas AM, Grinberg LT, Shany-Ur T, Lee SE, Rabinovici GD, Rosen HJ, Gorno-Tempini ML, Boxer AL, Miller ZA, Chiong W, Demay M, Kramer JH, Poisson KL, Sturm VE, Bettcher BM, Neylan M, Zackey DD, Nguyen LA, Ketelle R, Block N, Wu TQ, Dallich A, Russek N, Caplan A, Geschwind DH, Vossel KA, Miller BL. Distinct subtypes of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia based on patterns of network degeneration. JAMA Neurol 2016; 73: 1078-1088.
Russell SJ, Norvig P. Artificial intelligence: A modern approach. Prentice Hall, 2010.
Sadeghi N, Foster NL, Wang AY, Minoshima S, Lieberman AP, Tasdizen T. Automatic classification of Alzheimer’s disease vs. frontotemporal dementia: A spatial decision tree approach with FDG-PET. IEEE Inter Symp Biomed Imag 2008; 1-4: 408-411.
Sampathu DM, Neumann M, Kwong LK, Chou TT, Micsenyi M, Truax A, Bruce J, Grossman M, Trojanowski JQ, Lee VMY. Pathological heterogeneity of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions delineated by ubiquitin immunohistochemistry and novel monoclonal antibodies. Am J Pathol 2006; 189: 1343-1352.
Schneider JA, Arvanitakis Z, Bang W, Bennett DA. Mixed brain pathologies account for most dementia cases in community-dwelling older persons. Neurology 2007; 69: 2197-2204.
Schneider JA, Boyle PA, Arvanitakis Z, Bienias JL, Bennett DA. Subcortical infarcts, Alzheimer’s disease pathology, and memory function in older persons. Ann Neurol 2007; 62: 59-66.
Scullin MK, Harrison TL, Factor SA, Bliwise DL. A neurodegenerative disease sleep questionnaire: Principal component analysis in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Sci 2014; 336: 243-246.
Sokal RR, Sneath HA. Principles of numerical taxonomy. WH Freeman, San Francisco 1963.
Tian C, Liu D, Xiang W, Kretzschmar HA, Sun QL, Gao C, Xu Y, Wang H, Fan XY, Meng G, Li W, Dong XP. Analysis of the similarity and difference of global gene expression profiles in cortex regions of three neurodegenerative diseases: sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Mol Neurobiol 2014; 50: 473-481.
Trygg J, Wold S. Orthogonal projections to latent structures (O-PLS). J Chemometr 2002; 16: 119-128.
Wallin A, Blennow K. Clinical subgroups of Alzheimer’s syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand 1996; 93: 51-57.
Wicklund MR, Duffy JR, Strand EA, Machulda MM, Whitwell JL, Josephs KA. Quantitative application of the primary progressive aphasia consensus criteria. Neurology 2014; 82: 1119-1126.
Whitwell JL, Jack CR, Senjem ML, Josephs KA. Patterns of atrophy in pathologically confirmed FTLD with or without motor neuron degeneration. Neurology 2006; 66: 102-104.
Whitwell JL, Przybelski SA, Weigand SD, Ivnik RJ, Vemuri P, Gun­ter JL, Senjem ML, Shiung MM, Boeve BF, Knopman DS, Parisi JE, Dickson DW, Petersen RC, Jack CR, Josephs KA. Distinct anatomical subtypes of the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia: a cluster analysis study. Brain 2009; 132: 2932-2946.
Yokoyama JS, Bonham LW, Sears RL, Klein E, Karydas A, Kramer JH, Miller BL, Coppola G. Decision tree analysis of genetic risk for clinically heterogeneous Alzheimer’s disease. BMC Neurol 2015; 15: 47.
Zhang YD, Wang SH, Phillips P, Dong ZC, Ji GL, Yang JQ. Detection of Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment based on structural volumetric MR images using 3D-DWT and WTA-KSVM trained by PSOTVAC. Biomed Sig Proc Cont 2015; 21: 58-73.
Quick links
© 2018 Termedia Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Developed by Bentus.
PayU - płatności internetowe