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Biegunki poantybiotykowe – profilaktyka i leczenie

Dorota Ksiądzyna

Data publikacji online: 2018/12/27
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Biegunka jest jednym z najczęstszych działań niepożądanych antybiotykoterapii. W określonych przypadkach może stanowić zagrożenie dla zdrowia, a nawet życia pacjenta. Etiopatogeneza biegunki poantybiotykowej bywa różna, ale w większości przypadków dochodzi do niej wskutek zmiany składu jakościowego i ilościowego mikrobioty jelit wtórnej do antybiotykoterapii, tak więc biegunka poantybiotykowa jest w swej istocie na ogół przejawem jatrogennej dysbiozy. Szczególną postacią biegunki poantybiotykowej jest zespół objawów pojawiających się w wyniku nadmiernego namnażania się Clostridium difficile, co stanowi narastający problem kliniczny nie tylko u pacjentów hospitalizowanych, ale również w lecznictwie ambulatoryjnym. Artykuł przedstawia przegląd podstawowych danych na temat czynników ryzyka, profilaktyki i leczenia biegunki poantybiotykowej, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem tej postaci, którą powoduje Clostridium difficile.

Diarrhoea is one of the most common adverse effects of antibiotic treatment. Sometimes it may endanger both the health and the life of the affected patient. The aetiopathogenesis of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea may differ, but in the majority of cases this is the result of antibiotic-induced quantitative and qualitative changes of the gut microbiota composition. Therefore antibiotic-associated diarrhoea is usually, in fact, a clinical manifestation of iatrogenic dysbiosis. A set of symptoms caused by an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile is a specific type of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea of increasing clinical significance, not only in patients admitted to the hospital but also in outpatients. The paper reviews the basic data on risk factors, prophylaxis, and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, in particular Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea.
słowa kluczowe:

biegunka poantybiotykowa, Clostridium difficile, profilaktyka, probiotyki

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