eISSN: 1897-4317
ISSN: 1895-5770
Gastroenterology Review/Przegląd Gastroenterologiczny
Current issue Archive Manuscripts accepted About the journal Abstracting and indexing Subscription Contact Instructions for authors
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
4/2018
vol. 13
 
Share:
Share:
more
 
 
abstract:
Special paper

Guidelines on the management of irritable bowel syndrome

Anna Pietrzak, Barbara Skrzydło-Radomańska, Agata Mulak, Michał Lipiński, Ewa Małecka-Panas, Jarosław Reguła, Grażyna Rydzewska

Gastroenterology Rev 2018; 13 (4): 259–288
Online publish date: 2018/09/19
View full text
Get citation
ENW
EndNote
BIB
JabRef, Mendeley
RIS
Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero
AMA
APA
Chicago
Harvard
MLA
Vancouver
 
In memory of Professor Witold Bartnik



These guidelines constitute an update of the previous „Recommendations on the management of irritable bowel syndrome” issued in 2008. They have been developed by a Task Force organized by the Governing Board of the Polish Society of Gastroenterology. They discuss, with particular emphasis on new scientific data covering papers published since 2008: the etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic principles and criteria for the diagnosis, and recommendations for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The English-language acronym for the syndrome (IBS) has become popular in medical and popular scientific language, it is also widely recognized by patients who identify with this diagnosis. Therefore, in the discussed guidelines, this is what we will use.
keywords:

irritable bowel syndrome, IBS, recommendations, guidelines, IBS treatment, diastolic drugs, antidepressants, rifaximin , loperamide, macrogols

references:
Bartnik W, Chojnacki J, Paradowski L i wsp. Rekomendacje diagnostyczno-terapeutyczne w zespole jelita nadwrażliwego. Gastroenterol Klin 2009; 1: 9-17.
Brouwers M, Kho M, Browman G, et al.; the AGREE Next Steps Consortium. AGREE II: advancing guideline development, reporting and evaluation in healthcare. CMAJ 2010; 182: E839-42.
Guyatt G, Oxman A, Akl A, et al. GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction-GRADE evidence profiles and summary findings tables. J Clin Epidemiol 2011; 64: 383-94.
Dalkey N, Helmer O. An experimental application of the DELPHI method to the use of experts. Management Science 1963; 9: 458-67.
Canavan C, West J, Card T. The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 7: 71-80.
Aziz I, Tornblom H, Palsson O, et al. How the change in IBS Criteria from Rome III to Rome IV impacts on clinical characteristics and key pathophysiological factors. Am J Gastroenterol 2018; Doi: 10.1038/s41395-018-0074-z [Epub ahead of print].
Gwee K, Ghoshal U, Chen M. Irritable bowel syndrome in Asia: pathogenesis, natural history, epidemiology and management. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 33: 99-110.
Canon M, Ruiz A, Rondon M, Alvarado J. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome and health related quality of life in adults aged 18 to 30 years in a Colombian University: an electronic survey. Ann Gastroenterol 2017; 30: 67-75.
Sperber A, Dumitrascu D, Fukudo S, et al. The global prevalence of IBS in adults remains elusive due to the heterogeneity of studies: a Rome Foundation working team literature review. Gut 2017; 66: 1075-82.
Palsson O, Whitehead W, vanTilburg M, et al. Development and validation of the Rome IV Diagnostic Questionnaire for adults. Gastroenterology 2016; 150: 1481-91.
Palsson O, vanTilburg M, Simren M, et al. Mo1642 population prevalence of Rome IV and Rome III irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in the United States (US), Canada and the United Kingdom (UK). Gastroenterology 2016; 150 Suppl. 1: S739-40. 
Vork L, Weerts Z, Mujagic J, et al. Rome III vs Rome IV criteria for irritable bowel syndrome: a comparison of clinical characteristics in a large cohort study. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2018; Doi: 10.1111/nmo.13189. 
Saito YA. The role of genetics in IBS. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2011; 40: 45-67. 
Waehrens R, Zoller B, Sundguist J, et al. A Swedish national adoption study of risk of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). BMJ Open Gastroenterol 2017; 214: e000156.
Gazouli M, Wouters M, Kapu-Pojskic L, et al. Lessons learned – resolving the enigma of genetic factors in IBS. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 13: 77-87.
Wouters M, vanWanrooy S, Nguyen A, et al. Psychological comorbidity increases the risk for postinfectious IBS by enhanced susceptibility to develop infectious gastroenteritis. Gut 2016; 65: 1279-88.
Halvorson H, Schlett C, Riddle M. Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: 1894-9.
Klem F, Wadhwa A, Prokop L, et al. Prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome after infectious enteritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2017; 152: 1042-54.
Wadhwa A, AlNahhas M, Dierkhishing R, et al. High risk of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome in patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Alimentary Pharmacol Ther 2016; 44: 576-82.
Drossman D. Functional gastrointestinal disorders: history, pathophysiology, clinical features, and Rome IV. Gastroenterology 2016; 150: 1262-79. 
Mayer E, Savidge T, Shulman R. Brain-gut microbiome interactions and functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology 2014; 146: 1500-12.
El-Salhy M. Recent developments in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 2015; 21: 7621-36.
Houghton L, Heitkemper M, Crowell M, et al. Age, gender, and women’s health and the patient. Gastroenterology 2016; 150: 1332-43.
Crowell M. Role of serotonin in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Br J Pharmacol 2004; 141: 1285-93.
Ohman L, Isaksson S, Lindmark A, et al. T-cell activation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104: 1205-12.
Liebregts T, Adam B, Bredack C, et al. Immune activation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: 913-20.
Barbara G, Cremon C, De Giorgio R, et al. Mechanisms underlying visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2011; 13: 308-15.
Camilleri M, Lasch K, Zhou W. Irritable bowel syndrome: methods, mechanisms, and pathophysiology. The confluence of increased permeability, inflammation, and pain in irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2012; 303: G775-85.
Simrén M, Barbara G, Flint H, et al. Intestinal microbiota in functional bowel disorders: a Rome foundation report. Gut 2013; 62: 159-76.
Chen B, Kim J, Zhang Y, et al. Prevalence and predictors of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol 2018; doi: 10.1007/s00535-018-1476-9.
Sachdeva S, Rawat A, Reddy R, Puri A. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and irritable bowel syndrome: frequency and predictors. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 26 (suppl. 3): 135-8.
Barbara G, Feinle-Bisset C, Ghoshal U, et al. The intestinal microenvironment and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterology 2016; 150: 1305-18.
Boeckxstaens G, Camilleri M, Sifrim D, et al. Fundamentals of neurogastroenterology: physiology/motility – sensation. Gastroenterology 2016; 150: 1292-304.
Slattery S, Niaz O, Aziz Q, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the prevalence of bile acid malabsorption in the irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2015; 42: 3-11.
Tillisch K, Labus J. Advances in imaging the brain-gut axis: functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: 407-11.
Weaver K, Sherwin L, Walitt B, et al. Neuroimaging the brain-gut axis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther 2016; 7: 320-33.
Qin H, Cheng C, Tang X, Bian Z. Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20: 14126-31.
Van Oudenhove L, Levy R, Crowell M, et al. Biopsychosocial aspects of functional gastrointestinal disorders: how central and environmental processes contribute to the development and expression of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterology 2016; 150: 1355-67.
Halmos E, Power V, Shepherd S, et al. A diet low in FODMAPs reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2014; 146: 67-75.
Tana C, Umesaki Y, Imaoka A, et al. Altered profiles of intestinal microbiota and organic acids may be the origin of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2010; 22: 512-9.
Mulak A, Paradowski L. Interakcje jelitowo-mózgowe – nowe aspekty patogenetyczne. Terapia 2017; 1: 8-12.
Biesiekierski J, Peters S, Newnham E, et al. No effects of gluten in patients with self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates. Gastroenterology 2013; 145: 320-8.
Folks D. The interface of psychiatry and irritable bowel syndrome. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2004; 6: 210-5.
Lee C, Doo E, Choi J, et al. The increased level of depression and anxiety in irritable bowel syndrome patients compared with healthy controls: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2017; 23: 349-62.
Lacy B, Mearin F, Chang L, et al. Bowel disorders. Gastroenterology 2016; 150: 1393-407.
Wu J, Chan A, Chan Y, et al. The current treatment landscape of irritable bowel syndrome in adults in Hong Kong: consensus statements. Hong Kong Med J 2017; 23: 641-7.
Vandvik P, Lydersen S, Farup P. Prevalence, comorbidity and impact of irritable bowel syndrome in Norway. Scand J Gastroenterol 2006; 41: 650-6.
Vandvik P, Wilhelmsen I, Ihlebaek C, et al. Comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome in general practice: a striking feature with clinical implications. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 20: 1195-203.
Menees S, Kurlander J, Goel A, et al. Meta-analysis of the utility of common serum and fecal biomarkers in adults with IBS. Gastroenterology 2014; 146: S194.
Waugh N, Cummins E, Royle P, et al. Faecal calprotectin testing for differentiating amongst inflammatory and noninflammatory bowel diseases: systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2013; 17: 1-211.
Moayyedi P, Mearin F, Azpiroz F, et al. Irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis and management: a simplified algorithm for clinical practice. Unit Eur Gastroenterol J 2017; 5: 773-88.
Song K, Jung H, Kim H, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome in Korea, 2017 Revised Edition.
J Neurogastroenterol Motility 2018; 24: 197-215.
Black T, Manolakis C, Di Palma J. “Red flag” evaluation yield in irritable bowel syndrome. J Gastrointest Liver Dis 2012; 21: 153-6.
Robertson D, Kaminski M, Bretthauer M. Effectiveness, training and quality assurance of colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer. Gut 2015; 64: 982-90.
Limsui D, Pardi D, Camilleri M, et al. Symptomatic overlap between irritable bowel syndrome and microscopic colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007; 13: 175-81.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. December 2015. Available at: http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/.
Villoria A, Serra J, Azpiroz F, et al. Physical activity and intestinal gas clearance in patients with bloating. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: 2552-7.
Daley AJ, Grimmett C, Roberts L, et al. The effects of exercise upon symptoms and quality of life in patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Int J Sports Med 2008; 29: 778-82.
Johannesson E, Simren M, Strid H, et al. Physical activity improves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106: 915-22.
Johannesson E, Ringstrom G, Abrahamsson H, et al. Intervention to increase physical activity in irritable bowel syndrome shows long-term positive effects. World J Gastroenterol 2015; 21: 600-8.
Levy R, Linde J, Feld K, et al. The association of gastrointestinal symptoms with weight, diet and exercise in weight-loos program participants. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 10: 992-6.
Sadik R, Bjornson E, Simren M. The relationship between symptoms, body mass index, gastrointestinal transit and stool frequency in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 22: 102-8.
Schneck AS, Anty R, Tran A, et al. Increased prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in a cohort of french morbidly obese patients candidate for bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2016; 26: 1525-30.
Aasbrenn M, Hogestol I, Eribe I, et al. Prevalence and predictors of irritable bowel syndrome in patients with morbid obesity: a cross-sectional study. BMC Obesity 2017; 4: 1-8.
Aasbrenn M, Lydersen S, Farup P. A conservative weight loss intervention relieves bowel symptoms in morbidly obese subjects with irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective cohort study. J Obes 2018; 2018: 3732753.
Maleki B, Tartibian B, Mooren F, et al. Low-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise training modulates irritable bowel syndrome through antioxidative and inflammatory mechanisms in women: results of a randomized controlled trial. Cytokine 2018; 102: 18-25.
Zijdenbos I, de Wit N, van der Heijden G, et al. Psychological treatments for the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 21: CD006442.
Ford AC, Quigley EM, Lacy BE, et al. Effect of antidepressants and psychological therapies, including hypnotherapy, in irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2014; 109: 1350-65.
Laird K, Tanner-Smith E, Russell A, et al. Short-term and long-term efficacy of psychological therapies for irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 14: 937-47.
Laird K, Tanner-Smith E, Russell A, et al. Comparative efficacy of psychological therapies for improving mental health and daily functioning in irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 2017; 51: 142-52.
Manheimer E, Wieland L, Cheng K, et al. Acupuncture for irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: 835-48.
Schnabel L, Buscail C, Sabate J, et al. Association between ultra-processed food consumption and functional gastrointestinal disorders: results from the French NutriNet-Santé Cohort. Am J Gastroenterol 2018; 113: 1217-28.
Atkinson W, Sheldon TA, Shaath N, et al. Food elimination based on IgG antibodies in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Gut 2004; 53: 1459-64.
Ali A, Weiss TR, McKee D, et al. Efficacy of individualised diets in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open Gastroenterol 2017; 4: e000164.
Buscail C, Sabate J, Bouchoucha M, et al. Association between self-reported vegetarian diet and the irritable bowel syndrome in the French NutriNet cohort. PLoS One 2017; 12: e0183039.
Eswaran SL, Chey WD, Han-Markey T, et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing the low FODMAP diet vs. modified NICE guidelines in US adults with IBS-D. Am J Gastroenterol 2016; 111: 1824-32.
Bohn L, Storsrud S, Liljebo T, et al. Diet low in FODMAPs reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome as well as traditional dietary advice: a randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2015; 149: 1399-e2.
McIntosh K, Reed DE, Schneider T, et al. FODMAPs alter symptoms and the metabolome of patients with IBS: a randomised controlled trial. Gut 2017; 66: 1241-51.
Staudacher HM, Lomer MC, Anderson JL, et al. Fermentable carbohydrate restriction reduces luminal bifidobacteria and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J Nutr 2012; 142: 1510-8.
Staudacher HM, Lomer MCE, Farquharson FM, et al. Diet low in FODMAPs reduces symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and probiotic restores Bifidobacterium species: a randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2017; 153: 936-47.
Hustoft TN, Hausken T, Ystad SO, et al. Effects of varying dietary content of fermentable short-chain carbohydrates on symptoms, fecal microenvironment, and cytokine profiles in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2017; 29: https://doi.org/10.1111/nmo.
Krogsgaard LR, Lyngesen M, Bytzer P. Systematic review: quality of trials on the symptomatic effects of the low FODMAP diet for irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2017; 45: 1506-13.
Halmos EP, Christophersen CT, Bird AR, et al. Diets that differ in their FODMAP content alter the colonic luminal microenvironment. Gut 2015; 64: 93-100.
Bennet SMP, Bohn L, Storsrud S, et al. Multivariate modelling of faecal bacterial profiles of patients with IBS predicts responsiveness to a diet low in FODMAPs. Gut 2017; https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2016-313128.
Shepherd S, Parker F, Muir J, Gibson P. Dietary triggers of abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: randomized placebo-controlled evidence. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 6: 765-71.
Laatikainen R, Koskenpato J, Hongisto S, et al. Randomised clinical trial: low-FODMAP rye bread vs. regular rye bread to relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2016; 44: 460-70.
Shahbazkhani B, Sadeghi A, Malekzadeh R, et al. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity has narrowed the spectrum of irritable bowel syndrome: a double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Nutrients 2015; 7: 4542-54.
Soltoft J, Krag B, Gudmand-Hoyer E, et al. A double-blind trial of the effect of wheat bran on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet 1976; 307: 270-2.
Manning AP, Heaton KW, Harvey RF, et al. Wheat fibre and irritable bowel syndrome: a controlled trial. Lancet 1977; 310: 417-8.
Ritchie JA, Truelove SC. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with lorazepam, hyoscine butylbromide, and ispaghula husk. BMJ 1979; 278: 376-8.
Longstreth GF, Fox DD, Youkeles L, et al. Psyllium therapy in the irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind trial. Ann Intern Med 1981; 95: 53-6.
Arthurs Y, Fielding JF. Double blind trial of ispaghula/poloxamer in the irritable bowel syndrome. Ir Med J 1983; 76: 253.
Nigam P, Kapoor KK, Rastog CK, et al. Different therapeutic regimens in irritable bowel syndrome. J Assoc Physicians India 1984; 32: 1041-4.
Kruis W, Weinzierl M, Schussler P, et al. Comparison of the therapeutic effects of wheat bran, mebeverine and placebo in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. Digestion 1986; 34: 196-201.
Lucey MR, Clark ML, Lowndes JO, et al. Is bran efficacious in irritable bowel syndrome? A double blind placebo controlled crossover study. Gut 1987; 28: 221-5.
Prior A, Whorwell P. Double blind study of ispaghula in irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 1987; 28: 1510-3.
Jalihal A, Kurian G. Ispaghula therapy in irritable bowel syndrome: improvement in overall well-being is related to reduction in bowel dissatisfaction. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1990; 5: 507-13.
Fowlie S, Eastwood MA, Prescott R. Irritable bowel syndrome: assessment of psychological disturbance and its influence on the response to fibre supplementation. J Psychosom Res 1992; 36: 175-80.
Rees G, Davies J, Thompson R, et al. Randomised-controlled trial of a fibre supplement on the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. J R Soc Health 2005; 125: 30-4.
Bijkerk CJ, de Wit NJ, Muris JW, et al. Soluble or insoluble fibre in irritable bowel syndrome in primary care? Randomised placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2009; 339: b3154.
Cockerell KM, Watkins AS, Reeves LB, et al. Effects of linseeds on the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot randomised controlled trial. J Hum Nutr Diet 2012; 25: 435-43.
Kamiya T, Shikano M, Tanaka M, et al. Therapeutic effects of biobran, modified arabinoxylan rice bran, in improving symptoms of diarrhea predominant or mixed type irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot, randomized controlled study. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2014; 2014: 828137.
Cash BD, Epstein MS, Shah SM. A novel delivery system of peppermint oil is an effective therapy for irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Dig Dis Sci 2016; 61: 560-71.
Mosaffa-Jahromi M, Lankarani KB, Pasalar M, et al. Efficacy and safety of enteric coated capsules of anise oil to treat irritable bowel syndrome. J Ethnopharmacol 2016; 194: 937-46.
Lech Y, Olesen KM, Hey H, et al. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with peppermint oil. A double-blind investigation with a placebo. Ugeskr Laege 1988; 150: 2388-9.
Liu JH, Chen GH, Yeh HZ, et al. Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial. J Gastroenterol 1997; 32: 765-8.
Cappello G, Spezzaferro M, Grossi L, et al. Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Dig Liver Dis 2007; 39: 530-6.
Capanni M, Surrenti E, Biagini M, et al. Efficacy of peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial. Gazz Med Ital 2005; 164: 119-26.
Merat S, Khalili S, Mostajabi P, et al. The effect of enteric-coated, delayed-release peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci 2010; 55: 1385-90.
Alam M, Roy P, Miah A, et al. Efficacy of Peppermint oil in diarrhea predominant IBS – a double blind randomized placebo-controlled study. Mymensingh Med J 2013; 22: 27-30.
Ottillinger B, Storr M, Malfertheiner P, Allescher HD. STW 5 (Iberogast®): a safe and effective standard in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Wien Med Wochenschr 2013; 163: 65-72.
Wong B, Camilleri M, Eckert D, et al. Randomized pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic trial of dronabinol effects on colon transit in irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2012; 24: 358-e169.
Kabir MA, Ishaque SM, Ali MS, et al. Role of Saccharomyces boulardii in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Mymensingh Med J 2011; 20: 397-401.
Ko SJ, Han G, Kim SK, et al. Effect of Korean herbal medicine combined with a probiotic mixture on diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2013; 2013: 824605.
Stevenson C, Blaauw R, Fredericks E, et al. Randomized clinical trial: effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299 v on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Nutrition 2014; 30: 1151-7.
Sisson G, Ayis S, Sherwood RA, et al. Randomised clinical trial: a liquid multi-strain probiotic vs. placebo in the irritable bowel syndrome – a 12 week double-blind study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2014; 40: 51-62.
Jafari E, Vahedi H, Merat S, et al. Therapeutic effects, tolerability and safety of a multi-strain probiotic in Iranian adults with irritable bowel syndrome and bloating. Arch Iran Med 2014; 17: 466-70. Ludidi S, Jonkers DM, Koning CJ, et al. Randomized clinical trial on the effect of a multispecies probiotic on visceroperception in hypersensitive IBS patients. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2014; 26: 705-14.
Yoon JS, Sohn W, Lee OY, et al. Effect of multispecies probiotics on irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014; 29: 52-9.
Abbas Z, Yakoob J, Jafri W, et al. Cytokine and clinical response to Saccharomyces boulardii therapy in diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized trial. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014; 26: 630-9.
Lorenzo-Zuniga V, Llop E, Suarez C, et al. I.31, a new combination of probiotics, improves irritable bowel syndrome-related quality of life. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20: 8709-16.
Pineton de Chambrun G, Neut C, Chau A, et al. A randomized clinical trial of Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus placebo in the irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Liver Dis 2015; 47: 119-24.
Wong RK, Yang C, Song GH, et al. Melatonin regulation as a possible mechanism for probiotic (VSL#3) in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized double-blinded placebo study. Dig Dis Sci 2015; 60: 186-94.
Yoon H, Park YS, Lee DH, et al. Effect of administering a multi-species probiotic mixture on the changes in fecal microbiota and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2015; 57: 129-34.
Thijssen AY, Clemens CH, Vankerckhoven V, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus casei Shirota for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 28: 8-14.
Spiller R, Pelerin F, Cayzeele Decherf A, et al. Randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 in irritable bowel syndrome: improvement in abdominal pain and bloating in those with predominant constipation. U Eur Gastroenterol J 2016; 4: 353-62.
Hod K, Sperber AD, Ron Y, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effect of a probiotic mixture on symptoms and inflammatory markers in women with diarrhea-predominant IBS. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2017; 29 https://doi.org/10.1111/nmo.
Pinto-Sanchez MI, Hall GB, Ghajar K, et al. Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 reduces depression scores and alters brain activity: a pilot study in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2017; 153: 448-59.
Lyra A, Hillila M, Huttunen T, et al. Irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity improves equally with probiotic and placebo. World J Gastroenterol 2016; 22: 10631-42.
Gade J, Thorn P. Paraghurt for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Scand J Prim Health Care 1989; 7: 23-6.
Nobaek S, Johansson ML, Molin G, et al. Alteration of intestinal microflora is associated with reduction in abdominal bloating and pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 1231-8.
Niedzielin K, Kordecki H, Birkenfeld B. A controlled, double blind, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 13: 1143-7.
Kim HJ, Camilleri M, McKinzie S, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a probiotic, VSL#3, on gut transit and symptoms in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 17: 895-904.
Kajander K, Hatakka K, Poussa T, et al. A probiotic mixture alleviates symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a controlled 6-month intervention. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 22: 387-94.
Kim HJ, Vazquez Roque MI, Camilleri M, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a probiotic combination VSL#3 and placebo in irritable bowel syndrome with bloating. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2005; 17: 687-96.
Niv E, Naftali T, Hallak R, et al. The efficacy of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome – a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Clin Nutr 2005; 24: 925-31.
O’Mahony L, McCarthy J, Kelly P, et al. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 541-51.
Kim YG, Moon JT, Lee KM, et al. The effects of probiotics on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Korean J Gastroenterol 2006; 47: 413-9.
Simren M, Syrous A, Lindh A, et al. Effects of Lactobacillus Plantarum 299V on symptoms and rectal sensitivity in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) – a randomized double blind controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: A600.
Whorwell PJ, Altringer L, Morel J, et al. Efficacy of an encapsulated probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: 1581-90.
Guyonnet D, Chassany O, Ducrotte P, et al. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 on the health-related quality of life and symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome in adults in primary care: a multicentre, randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 26: 475-86.
Drouault-Holowacz S, Bieuvelet S, Burckel A, et al. A double blind randomized controlled trial of a probiotic combination in 100 patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2008; 32: 147-52.
Enck P, Zimmerman K, Menke G, et al. A mixture of Escherichia coli (DSM 17252) and Enterococcus faecalis (DSM 16440) for treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome – a randomized controlled trial with primary care physicians. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2008; 20: 1103-9.
Kajander K, Myllyluoma E, Rajilic-Stojanovic M, et al. Clinical trial: multispecies probiotic supplementation alleviates the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and stabilizes intestinal microbiota. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27: 48-57.
Sinn DH, Song JH, Kim HJ, et al. Therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus -SDC 2012, 2013 in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci 2008; 53: 2714-8.
Zeng J, Li YQ, Zuo XL, et al. Clinical trial: effect of active lactic acid bacteria on mucosal barrier function in patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 28: 994-1002.
Agrawal A, Houghton LA, Morris J, et al. Clinical trial: the effects of a fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 on abdominal distension and gastrointestinal transit in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009; 29: 104-14.
Enck P, Zimmerman K, Menke G, et al. Randomized controlled treatment trial of irritable bowel syndrome with a probiotic E. coli preparation (DSM17252) compared to placebo. Z Gastroenterol 2009; 47: 209-14.
Hong KS, Kang HW, Im JP, et al. Effect of probiotics on symptoms in Korean adults with irritable bowel syndrome. Gut Liver 2009; 3: 101-7.
Williams EA, Stimpson J, Wang D, et al. Clinical trial: a multistrain probiotic preparation significantly reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009; 29: 97-103.
Simren M, Ohman L, Olsson J, et al. Clinical trial: the effects of a fermented milk containing three probiotic bacteria in patients with irritable bowel syndrome – a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 31: 218-27.
Choi CH, Jo SY, Park HJ, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in irritable bowel syndrome: Effect on quality of life. J Clin Gastroenterol 2011; 45: 679-83.
Guglielmetti S, Mora D, Gschwender M, et al. Randomised clinical trial: Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75 significantly alleviates irritable bowel syndrome and improves quality of life – a double-blind, placebo controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 33: 1123-32.
Michail S, Kenche H. Gut microbiota is not modified by randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of VSL#3 in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2011; 3: 1-7.
Ringel-Kulka T, Palsson OS, Maier D, et al. Probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 versus placebo for the symptoms of bloating in patients with functional bowel disorders: a double-blind study. J Clin Gastroenterol 2011; 45: 518-25.
Sondergaard B, Olsson J, Ohlson K, et al. Effects of probiotic fermented milk on symptoms and intestinal flora in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2011; 46: 663-72.
Cha BK, Jung SM, Choi CH, et al. The effect of a multispecies probiotic mixture on the symptoms and fecal microbiota in diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Gastroenterol 2012; 46: 220-7.
Cui S, Hu Y. Multistrain probiotic preparation significantly reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Int J Clin Exp Med 2012; 5: 238-44.
Dapoigny M, Piche T, Ducrotte P, et al. Efficacy and safety profile of LCR35 complete freeze-dried culture in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind study. World J Gastroenterol 2012; 18: 2067-75.
Ducrotte P, Sawant P, Jayanthi V. Clinical trial: Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (DSM 9843) improves symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 2012; 18: 4012-8.
Farup PG, Jacobsen M, Ligaarden SC, et al. Probiotics, symptoms, and gut microbiota: What are the relations? A randomized controlled trial in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2012; 2012: 214102.
Kruis W, Chrubasik S, Boehm S, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial to study therapeutic effects of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in subgroups of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Int J Colorectal Dis 2012; 27: 467-74.
Begtrup LM, de Muckadell OB, Kjeldsen J, et al. Long-term treatment with probiotics in primary care patients with irritable bowel syndrome – a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2013; 48: 1127-35.
Roberts LM, McCahon D, Holder R, et al. A randomised controlled trial of a probiotic ‘functional food’ in the management of irritable bowel syndrome. BMC Gastroenterol 2013; 13: 45.
Rai RR, Dwivedi M, Kumar N. Efficacy and safety of drotaverine hydrochloride in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Saudi J Gastroenterol 2014; 20: 378-82.
Zheng L, Lai Y, Lu W, et al. Pinaverium reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in a multi-center, randomized controlled trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015; 13: 1285-92.
Misra SC, Pandey RM. Efficacy of drotaverine in irritable bowel syndrome: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 2544.
Schafer VE, Ewe K. The treatment of irritable colon. Efficacy and tolerance of buscopan plus, buscopan, paracetamol and placebo in ambulatory patients with irritable colon. Fortschr Med 1990; 108: 488-92.
Centonze V, Imbibo BP, Campanozzi F, et al. Oral cimetropium bromide, a new antimuscarinic drug, for long-term treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 1988; 83: 1262-6.
Dobrilla G, Imbibo BP, Piazzi L, et al. Long term treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with cimetropium bromide: a double blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Gut 1990; 31: 355-8.
Passaretti S, Guslandi M, Imbibo BP, et al. Effects of cimetropium bromide on gastrointestinal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1989; 3: 267-76.
Levy C, Charbonnier A, Cachin M. Pinaverium bromide and functional colonic disease (double-blind study). Sem Hop Ther 1977; 53: 372-4.
Virat J, Hueber D. Colopathy pain and dicetel. Prat Med 1987; 43: 32-4.
Fielding JF. Double blind trial of trimebutine in the irritable bowel syndrome. Ir Med J 1980; 73: 377-9.
Ghidini O, Saponati G, Intrieri L. Single drug treatment for irritable colon: rociverine versus trimebutine maleate. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 1986; 39: 541-8.
Moshal MG, Herron M. A clinical trial of trimebutine (Mebutin) in spastic colon. J Int Med Res 1979; 7: 231-4.
Glende M, Morselli-Labate AM, Battaglia G, et al. Extended analysis of a double blind, placebo-controlled, 15-week study with otilinium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002; 14: 1331-8.
Gilvarry J, Kenny A, Fielding JF. The non-effect of pirenzipine in dietary resistant irritable bowel syndrome. Ir J Med Sci 1989; 158: 262.
Mitchell SA, Mee AS, Smith GD, et al. Alverine citrate fails to relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 1187-95.
Piai G, Mazzacca G. Prifinium bromide in the treatment of the irritable colon syndrome. Gastroenterology 1979; 77: 500-2.
Page JG, Dirnberger GM. Treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome with Bentyl (dicyclomine hydrochloride). J Clin Gastroenterol 1981; 3: 153-6.
Baldi F, Corinaldesi R, Ferrarini F, et al. Clinical and functional evaluation of octilonium bromide in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind controlled trial. Clin Trials J 1983; 20: 77-88.
Castiglione F, Daniele B, Mazzacca G. Therapeutic strategy for the irritable bowel syndrome. Ital J Gastroenterol 1991; 23: 53-5.
Clave P, Acalovschi M, Triantafillidis JK, et al. Randomised clinical trial: otilonium bromide improves frequency of abdominal pain, severity of distention and time to relapse in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 34: 432-42.
Hou X, Chen S, Zhang Y, et al. Quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome assessed using IBS-QoL measure after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment with mebeverine hydrochloride or pinaverinum bromide: results of an international prospective observational cohort study in Poland, Egypt, Mexico and China. Clin Drug Investig 2014; 34: 783-93.
Agger JL, Schroder A, Gormsen LK, et al. Imipramine versus placebo for multiple functional somatic syndromes (STreSS-3): a double-blind, randomised study. Lancet Psychiatry 2017; 4: 378-88.
Myren J, Groth H, Larssen SE, et al. The effect of trimipramine in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1982; 17: 871-5.
Vij JC, Jiloha RC, Kumar N, et al. Effect of antidepressant drug (doxepin) on irritable bowel syndrome patients. Indian J Psychiatry 1991; 33: 243-6.
Drossman DA, Toner BB, Whitehead WE, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy versus education and desipramine versus placebo for moderate to severe functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 19-31.
Kuiken SD, Tytgat GNJ, Boeckxstaens GEE. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine does not change rectal sensitivity and symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 1: 219-28.
Tabas G, Beaves M, Wang J, et al. Paroxetine to treat irritable bowel syndrome not responding to high fiber diet: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 914-20.
Vahedi H, Merat S, Momtahen S, et al. Clinical trial: the effect of amitriptyline in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27: 678-84.
Vahedi H, Merat S, Rashidioon A, et al. The effect of fluoxetine in patients with pain and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind randomized-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 22: 381-5.
Tack J, Broekaert D, Fischler B, et al. A controlled crossover study of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram in irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2006; 55: 1095-103.
Talley NJ, Kellow JE, Boyce P, et al. Antidepressant therapy (imipramine and citalopram) for irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci 2008; 53: 108-15.
Abdul-Baki H, El Hajj II, ElZahabi L, et al. A randomized controlled trial of imipramine in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 2009; 15: 3636-42.
Masand PS, Pae CU, Krulewicz S, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine controlled-release in irritable bowel syndrome. Psychosomatics 2009; 50: 78-86.
Ladabaum U, Sharabidze A, Levin TR, et al. Citalopram is not effective therapy for nondepressed patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 8: 42-8.
Ghadir MR, Habibinejad H, Heidari A, et al. Doxepin is more effective than nortriptyline and placebo for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized triple-blind placebo-controlled trial. Tehran Univ Med J 2011; 69: 352-8.
Sharara A, Aoun E, Abdul-Baki H, et al. A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial of rifaximin in patients with abdominal bloating and flatulence. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: 326-33.
Heefner JD, Wilder RM, Wilson ID. Irritable colon and depression. Psychosomatics 1978; 19: 540-7.
Pimentel M, Park S, Mirocha J, et al. The effect of a nonabsorbed oral antibiotic (rifaximin) on the symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2006; 145: 557-63.
Lembo A, Ferreira S, Ringel N, et al. Rifaximin for the treatment of diarrhea-associated irritable bowel syndrome: short term treatment leading to long term sustained response. Gastroenterology 2008; 134: P-255 (T1390).
Pimentel M, Lembo A, Chey W, et al. Rifaximin therapy for patients with irritable bowel syndrome without constipation. N Engl J Med 2011; 363: 22-32.
Lembo A, Pimentel M, Rao S, et al. Repeat treatment with rifaximin is safe and effective in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2016; 151: 1113-21.
Menees S, Maneerattannaporn M, Kim H, Chey W. The efficacy and safety of rifaximin for irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: 28-35.
Bianchi M, Festa V, Moretti A, et al. Meta-analysis: long-term therapy with rifaximin in the management of uncomplicated diverticular disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 33: 902-10.
Chen B, Kim J, Zhang Y, Du L. Prevalence and predictors of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol 2018; 53: 807-18.
Schoenfeld P, Pimentel M, Chang L, et al. Safety and tolerability of rifaximin for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome without constipation: a pooled analysis of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2014; 39: 1161-8.
Acosta A, Camilleri M, Shin A, et al. Effects of rifaximin on transit, permeability, fecal microbiome, and organic acid excretion in irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2016; 7: e173.
Bruzzese E, Pesce M, Sarelli G, Guarino A. Pharmacokinetic drug evaluation of rifaximin for treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2018; 14: 753-60.
Chapman RW, Stanghellini V, Geraint M, et al. Randomized clinical trial: Macrogol/PEG 3350 plus electrolytes for treatment of patients with constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2013; 108: 1508-15.
Awad RA, Camacho S. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of polyethylene glycol effects on fasting and postprandial rectal sensitivity and symptoms in hypersensitive constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Colorectal Dis 2010; 12: 1131-8.
Bellini M, Usai-Satta P, Bove A, et al. Chronic constipation diagnosis and treatment evaluation: the “CHRO.CO.DI.T.E.” study. BMC Gastroenterol 2017; 17: 11.
Hovdenak N. Loperamide treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome. Scand J Gastroenterol 1987; 130: 81-4.
Lavo B, Stenstam M, Nielsen AL. Loperamide in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome – a double-blind placebo controlled study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1987; 130: 77-80.
Efskind PS, Bernklev T, Vatn MH. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial with loperamide in irritable bowel syndrome. Scand J Gastroenterol 1996; 31: 463-8.
Yang Y, Fang JY, Guo X, et al. Efficacy and safety of linaclotide in patients with IBS-C: results from a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in China and other regions. Gastroenterology 2016; 150: S741.
Johnston JM, Kurtz CB, MacDougall JE, et al. Linaclotide improves abdominal pain and bowel habits in a phase IIb study of patients with irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 1877-86.
Chey WD, Lembo AJ, Lavins BJ, et al. Linaclotide for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation: a 26-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate efficacy and safety. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: 1702-12.
Rao S, Lembo AJ, Shiff SJ, et al. 12-week, randomized, controlled trial with a 4-week randomized withdrawal period to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linaclotide in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: 1714-24.
Brenner DM, Fogel R, Dorn SD, et al. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of plecanatide in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation: results of two phase 3 randomized clinical trials. Am J Gastroenterol 2018; 113: 735-45.
Miner P, De Luca R, La Portilla M, et al. Plecanatide, a novel urogunaylin analog: a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose ranging trial to evaluate efficacy and safety in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Am J Gastroenterol 2014; 109: S541.
Drossman DA, Chey WD, Johanson JF, et al. Clinical trial: lubiprostone in patients with constipation-associated irritable bowel syndrome – results of two randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009; 29: 329-41.
Johanson JF, Drossman DA, Panas R, et al. Clinical trial: phase 2 study of lubiprostone for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27: 685-96.
Cryer B, Drossman DA, Chey WD, et al. Analysis of nausea in clinical studies of lubiprostone for the treatment of constipation disorders. Dig Dis Sci 2017; 62: 3568-78.
Fukudo S, Hongo M, Kaneko H, Ueno R. Efficacy and safety of oral lubiprostone in constipated patients with or without irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled and dose-finding study. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2011; 23: 544-e205.
Chang L, Chey W, Drossman D, et al. Effects of baseline abdominal pain and bloating on response to lubiprostone in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2016; 44: 1114-22.
Miller DP, Alfredson T, Cook SF, et al. Incidence of colonic ischemia, hospitalized complications of constipation, and bowel surgery in relation to use of alosetron hydrochloride. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 1117-22.
Camilleri M, Mayer EA, Drossman DA, et al. Improvement in pain and bowel function in female irritable bowel patients with alosetron, a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13: 1149-59.
Camilleri M, Northcutt AR, Kong S, et al. Efficacy and safety of alosetron in women with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2000; 355: 1035-40.
Camilleri M, Chey WY, Mayer EA, et al. A randomized controlled clinical trial of the serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist alosetron in women with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 1733-40.
Bardhan KD, Bodemar G, Geldof H, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled dose-ranging study to evaluate the efficacy of alosetron in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000; 14: 23-34.
Lembo T, Wright RA, Lotronex Investigator T, et al. Alosetron controls bowel urgency and provides global symptom improvement in women with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 2662-70.
Chey WD, Chey WY, Heath AT, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of alosetron in women with severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 2195-203.
Chang L, Ameen VZ, Dukes GE, et al. A dose-ranging, phase II study of the efficacy and safety of alosetron in men with diarrhea-predominant IBS. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 115-23.
Lembo AJ, Lacy BE, Zuckerman MJ, et al. Eluxadoline for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea. N Engl J Med 2016; 374: 242-53.
Dove LS, Lembo A, Randall CW, et al. Eluxadoline benefits patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea in a phase 2 study. Gastroenterology 2013; 145: 329-38.e1.
Barbara G, Cremon C, Annese V, et al. Randomised controlled trial of mesalazine in IBS. Gut 2016; 65: 82-90.
Lam C, Tan W, Leighton M, et al. A mechanistic multicentre, parallel group, randomised placebo-controlled trial of mesalazine for the treatment of IBS with diarrhoea (IBS-D). Gut 2016; 65: 91-9.
Aron J, Lin M, Yu J, et al. Mesalamine granules 1500 mg once daily for 12 weeks provides adequate relief of IBS symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea: results from a phase 2 trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: S711-2.
Halkjær S, Christensen A, Lo B, et al. Faecal microbiota transplantation alters gut microbiota in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: results from a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Gut 2018 Jul 6. pii: gutjnl-2018-316434. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-316434. 
Johnsen P, Hilpüsch F, Cavanagh J, et al. Faecal microbiota transplantation versus placebo for moderate-to-severe irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-centre trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 3: 17-24.
Miller LE. Study design considerations for irritable bowel syndrome clinical trials. Ann Gastroenterol 2014; 27: 338-45.
Quick links
© 2019 Termedia Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Developed by Bentus.
PayU - płatności internetowe