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Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia/Neuropsychiatry and Neuropsychology
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2/2018
vol. 13
 
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Oksytocyna – socjalny neuropeptyd. Czy ma znaczenie w teorii neurorozwojowej depresji?

Monika E. Talarowska, Paulina Maruszewska, Edyta Staroń, Piotr Gałecki

Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia 2018; 13, 2: 65–74
Data publikacji online: 2018/11/20
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Zgodnie z teorią przywiązania Bowlby’ego emocjonalna więź matka–dziecko kształtuje się w pierwszym roku życia. Według założeń teorii neurorozwojowej depresji proces ten rozpoczyna się jednak znacznie wcześniej, bowiem doświadczenia emocjonalne z trzech okresów życia (okresu prenatalnego, wczesnego dzieciństwa i adolescencji) mają kluczowe znaczenie dla ujawnienia się choroby. Kształtujące się wówczas połączenia nerwowe tworzące zręby naszej osobowości bazują na przewadze układu limbicznego z ciałem migdałowatym i hipokampem nad „mózgiem racjonalnym” (kora czołowa). Naszym zdaniem istotne znaczenie w kształtowaniu się tych połączeń może mieć właśnie działanie opisanego w prezentowanym artykule układu oksytocyny jako „socjalnego peptydu” warunkującego naszą zdolność przywiązywania się do drugiego człowieka. Zdolność ta stanowi swoistą szczepionkę przeciwko depresji. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie najnowszych doniesień związanych z rolą, jaką może odgrywać oksytocyna w etiologii i przebiegu zaburzeń depresyjnych nawracających. Dokonaliśmy przeglądu najnowszej literatury – głównie anglojęzycznej – wykorzystując do tego celu bazę Pubmed/MEDLINE (do 31.05.2018 r.). Przy wyszukiwaniu posłużyliśmy się terminami: zaburzenia depresyjne, oksytocyna, przywiązanie, relacja matka–dziecko. W analizie wykorzystaliśmy artykuły charakteryzujące się najwyższą poprawnością metodologiczną i merytoryczną.

According to Bowlby’s theory of attachment, the mother–child emotional bond is shaped in the first year of life. However, according to the neurodevelopmental theory of depression, this process begins much earlier, because emotional experiences from three periods of life (prenatal period, early childhood, adolescence) are of key importance for the appearance of the disease. Nerve connections forming at the time, forming the foundations of our personality, are based on the predominance of the limbic system with the amygdala and hippocampus over the “rational brain” (frontal cortex). In our opinion, the role of the oxytocin system described in the presented article may play an important role in shaping these connections, as a “social peptide” conditioning our ability to create relationships. This ability is a kind of vaccine against depression. The aim of the article is to present the latest reports related to the possible role of oxytocin in the etiology and course of depression. We have reviewed the latest literature, mainly English-language, using the Pubmed/MEDLINE database for this purpose (until 31/05/2018). We based our search on the terms: depressive disorders, oxytocin, attachment, and mother-child relationship. In the analysis, we used articles that were characterised by the highest methodological and substantive correctness.
słowa kluczowe:

zaburzenia depresyjne, teoria neurorozwojowa depresji, oksytocyna, więź matka–dziecko

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