eISSN: 2084-9885
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Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia/Neuropsychiatry and Neuropsychology
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
3/2017
vol. 12
 
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Wybrane techniki relaksacyjne oraz możliwości ich zastosowania w kontekście zaburzeń i chorób psychofizycznych związanych ze stresem

Katarzyna Rygiel

Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia 2017; 12, 3: 126–133
Data publikacji online: 2017/11/30
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Choroby związane ze stresem stanowią rosnące obciążenie dla systemu opieki zdrowotnej i dla społeczeństwa. Aby zaspokoić bieżące potrzeby w tym zakresie poszukiwane są innowacyjne, bezpieczne i skuteczne metody, do których należą między innymi techniki relaksacyjne. W szczególności medytacja transcedentalna (transcendental meditation – TM) i redukcja stresu oparta na uważności (mindfulness-based stress reduction – MBSR), zgodnie z ewidencją z licznych badań klinicznych, okazały się korzystne pod względem redukcji wielu szkodliwych konsekwencji psychofizycznych, związanych z oddziaływaniem przewlekłego stresu na organizm.

Artykuł przedstawia teoretyczne podstawy relaksacji, wymienia główne rodzaje technik relaksacyjnych oraz szczegółowo analizuje udokumentowane efekty stosowania technik: TM i MBSR w różnych kontekstach badawczych i klinicznych (np. depresja i choroby sercowo-naczyniowe) oraz profilaktycznych (np. redukcja odczuwanego poziomu stresu wśród osób szczególnie narażonych na czynniki stresogenne z otoczenia – personel medyczny). Ponadto wybrane implikacje kliniczne MBSR w zakresie prewencji oraz wspomagania terapii częstych chorób psychosomatycznych zostały krótko omówione.

Stress-related diseases present an ever-increasing burden to health care systems and to society, and thus have become a target of numerous innovative, safe, and effective clinical interventions, in order to fulfil these unmet needs. Such interventions include, among others, relaxation techniques. In particular, two such techniques: transcendental meditation (TM) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), which according to evidence from numerous clinical studies, have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing negative consequences of chronic stress.

This article presents the theoretical foundation of relaxation, lists the main types of relaxation techniques, and analyses in detail some documented results of using the TM and MBSR techniques in different research and clinical (e.g. depression and cardiovascular diseases) as well as prophylactic contexts (e.g. reduction of perceived stress level among individuals, such as medical professionals, who are at a particularly high risk of exposure to multiple external stressors). In addition, some clinical implications of MBSR on reduction of adverse psychophysical impact of chronic stress on the human body, as well as disease prevention and support of some therapies for common psychosomatic diseases have briefly been discussed.
słowa kluczowe:

techniki relaksacyjne, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), przewlekły stres, niepokój, depresja, choroby sercowo-naczyniowe

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